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Hierdie gewilde Britse lekkergoed kom na Amerika

Hierdie gewilde Britse lekkergoed kom na Amerika


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Britse Maltesers van Mars Candy kom amptelik in Januarie 2017 na die Verenigde State

Is Britse lekkers regtig beter as Amerikaanse soorte? Kom ons vind uit.

Maltersers kom na Amerika. Vir dekades het die Verenigde Koninkryk 'n sjokolade -skyfie op sy skouer oor die kwaliteit van Britse lekkers bo Amerikaanse lekkergoed. Daar was selfs ernstige geskreeu oor die verminderde kwaliteit van die Britse Cadbury-room-eiers wat nou in Amerikaanse besit is, verlede jaar.

Die Britse Maltesers wat in Mars besit word, sal vanaf Januarie 2017 in die Verenigde State beskikbaar wees, berig Brand Eating. Hierdie sjokolade bedekte moutballetjies kan soortgelyk wees aan Hershey's Whoppers, maar suikervoorraadliefhebbers let op die tekstuur en smaakverskille.

Maltesers sal beskikbaar wees in enkelsnitte van 1,3 gram ($ 1,09– $ 1,39), teaterkassies van 3 gram ($ 1– $ 1,70), sakke van 3,52 gram, 14,5-ons baddens ($ 4,99– $ 5,99) en 31,1 gram ($ 9,48– $ 9,99) ).

Maltersers is reeds aanlyn en in uitgesoekte rolprentteaters beskikbaar, maar dit kom na die nuwe jaar op die rakke van die kruidenierswinkel en in die winkel.


Hierdie gewilde Britse lekkergoed kom na Amerika - resepte

AFDRUK MET TOESTEMMING

'N Reeks van vier dele oor die grootste groepe emigrante van die Britse eilande na koloniale Amerika. Hulle was: die PURITANSE wat tussen 1629 en 1640 hoofsaaklik van East Anglia na die Massachusettsbaaikolonie gekom het, die CAVALIERS EN SERVANTS wat hoofsaaklik van die suide van Engeland na Virginia gekom het tussen 1642 en 1675, die QUAKERS wat hoofsaaklik van die Engelse Midlands na Pennsylvania tussen 1675 en 1725 en die SKOTS-IERS wat tussen 1717 en 1775 hoofsaaklik van die Engels/Skotse grenslande (soms via Noord-Ierland) na Virginia (via Pennsylvania) gekom het.

In ALBION'S SEED verwys David Fischer na hierdie tweede groep immigrante as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". Terwyl ons aangaan, dink ek dat u sal sien hoekom. Dit was 'n groep mense wat tussen 1642 en 1675 meestal uit die Suidwes -Engelse graafskappe Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire en verskeie ander na die Chesapeake Bay -omgewing van Virginia en Maryland geëmigreer het, met 'n hoogtepunt van 1650's. Die rede vir hierdie migrasie was 'n bietjie ingewikkelder. Die Puriteine ​​het beheer in Engeland gekry en die Anglikane word nou vervolg. Sommige mense wat dit verlaat het, het dit gedoen as gevolg van godsdienstige vervolging, net soos die Puriteine. Maar daar was 'n sekondêre motivering vir sommige. Die erfeniswette in Engeland het alle vaste eiendom aan die oudste seun van die gesin gegee. Sommige van diegene wat Engeland verlaat het, was tweede of derde seuns van 'elite' -gesinne wat na 'n plek wou gaan waar hulle eie grond kon hê.

In die begin het Virginia mense met gemengde godsdienstige agtergronde aangetrek. Maar die belangrikste godsdiens was die Church of England (Episcopal). Nadat Virginia 'n koninklike kolonie geword het, het die Vergadering wette aangeneem wat die Kerk van Engeland die Staatskerk in Virginia (1632) gemaak het. Oor 'n tydperk het dit vir persone van afwykende godsdienste al hoe moeiliker geword om in Virginia te bly.

Ongeveer 25 persent van die persone in hierdie tweede migrasie was van die Engelse "elite"-hulle het rykdom, sosiale status en opleiding in Engeland gehad. Hulle was lidmate van die Anglikaanse Kerk en hulle was Royalisties in hul politiek. Die ander 75 persent was uit die laer klasse en het as bediendes, baie as bediendes, gekom om te werk op die groot plantasies wat deur die "kavaliers" opgerig is. Dit was arm, ongeletterd en ongeskool. Daar was onmiddellik 'n klassestelsel in Virginia wat nie bestaan ​​het nie en nie in New England goedgekeur sou word nie. In hierdie migrasie was mannetjies in getal vroue met ongeveer 4 tot 1. Die meerderheid van die wat gekom het, was ongetroude mans tussen die ouderdomme van 15 en 24.

Die gesinsgevoelens was net so sterk in hierdie groep as onder die Puriteine, maar verskil in wese. Daar was baie meer klem op die uitgebreide gesin. Lede van dieselfde uitgebreide familie was geneig om saam te woon en naby mekaar te bly. Die wooneenheid was die kernfamilie, maar die eenheid was die uitgebreide gesin. Hulle het in buurte bymekaar gestroom en hul dooies in familiepersele begrawe. (Anders as in New England waar daar in elke stad gemeenskaplike begraafplase was.) Die terme "broer" en "neef" is meer losweg gebruik-en kan nie altyd letterlik opgeneem word as dit in rekords voorkom nie. Huishoudings het dikwels bediendes, losies en besoekers ingesluit. Almal is as familie behandel solank hulle in die huis was. Virginiërs was blykbaar nie agterdogtig oor vreemdelinge soos New Englanders nie.

In Virginia was gesinne geneig om kleiner te wees-hoofsaaklik omdat die sterftesyfer baie hoër was. Daar was meer stapsverhoudings om dieselfde rede. Hierdie groep deel die Puriteine ​​se sterk voorskrif om te trou. Bachelor en spinnekoppe is as onnatuurlik en gevaarlik vir die samelewing veroordeel. Maar die huwelik was nie 'n kontrak nie, want in New England was dit 'n onoplosbare unie, 'n heilige knoop wat nie losgemaak kon word nie. Alle huwelike is in die staatskerk (Anglikaan) uitgevoer en egskeiding is nie toegelaat nie. Daar was 5 vereiste stappe vir die huwelik: geskenk, verbod, godsdienstige seremonie, huweliksfees, seksuele voleinding. Skriftelike toestemming van ouers was nodig. Liefde was nie nodig voor die huwelik nie. As dit nie voorheen gebeur het nie, sou dit na verwagting volg. Ouers het 'n aktiewe rol gespeel in huweliksbesluite, maar het gewoonlik nie 'n kind gedwing om teen sy/haar wil te trou nie. Die eerste neefhuwelike was in Virginia goed en het gereeld gebeur. Dit volg hul patroon van 'hou dit in die gesin'. Huweliksfeeste was uitgebrei-anders as New England waar dit nie toegelaat is nie. Die gemiddelde huweliksouderdom vir 'n man was ongeveer 25-26 jaar in New England, maar vir vroue was dit jonger, 18-20 jaar oud. Sommige mans het nie getrou nie omdat daar eenvoudig nie genoeg vroue was om rond te gaan nie. Seksuele verhoudings was veronderstel om tot die huwelik beperk te wees, maar die strawwe was nie so erg soos in New England nie en vroue is swaarder gestraf as mans.

Die naampatrone vir kinders het die gebruike van Suidwes -Engeland gevolg. Kinders is dikwels vernoem na familielede, maar in 'n ander patroon as New England. Die oudste seun is vernoem na sy oupa aan vaderskant, die volgende seuntjie na die oupa aan moederskant, en na die pa. Dieselfde patroon is vir meisies gebruik. Hulle het minder Bybelse name gebruik as in New England en het kinders dikwels na Kings and Knights genoem-gunstelinge was Robert, Richard, Edward, George en Charles. Hulle het ook name van Christelike heiliges wat nie in die Bybel voorkom nie, gebruik en Engelse volksname-gunstelinge was Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances en Alice. Maar die Bybelse name van Maria, Elizabeth en Sarah was net so gewild as in New England. Kinderdoop is beoefen.

Die ouers in Virginia was meer toegeeflik as die ouers in New England. Kinders is eintlik aangemoedig om eiewillig te wees, maar daar word ook van hulle verwag om 'n paar uitgebreide rituele van selfbeheersing na te kom. Die idee van die ouer patriarg was baie sterk, en baie rituele het dit ook omring. Daar was min skole. Kinders van die elite -klas is tuis opgelei en die armes het ongeletterd gebly. Daar was geen townships soos in New England nie. Mense vestig hulle op plantasies en daar was klein markdorpe.

Die beste bron van rekords is die Episcopal Church, waar alle doop, huwelike en sterftes aangeteken is. Daar was 'n tydperk van ongeveer 100 jaar toe almal hierdie dinge in die staatskerk moes doen, selfs al was hulle nie lidmate nie.

As u hierdie groepe meer in diepte wil bestudeer, beveel ek aan dat u die boek, ALBION'S SEAD: Four Four Brits FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA, deur David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989 lees. Baie (maar nie al nie) materiaal hierin "Resep" is uit daardie boek.


Hierdie gewilde Britse lekkergoed kom na Amerika - resepte

AFDRUK MET TOESTEMMING

'N Reeks van vier dele oor die grootste groepe emigrante van die Britse eilande na koloniale Amerika. Hulle was: die PURITANSE wat tussen 1629 en 1640 hoofsaaklik van East Anglia na die Massachusettsbaaikolonie gekom het, die CAVALIERS EN SERVANTS wat hoofsaaklik van die suide van Engeland na Virginia gekom het tussen 1642 en 1675, die QUAKERS wat hoofsaaklik van die Engelse Midlands na Pennsylvania tussen 1675 en 1725 en die SKOTS-IERS wat tussen 1717 en 1775 hoofsaaklik van die Engels/Skotse grenslande (soms via Noord-Ierland) na Virginia (via Pennsylvania) gekom het.

In ALBION'S SEED verwys David Fischer na hierdie tweede groep immigrante as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". Terwyl ons aangaan, dink ek dat u sal sien hoekom. Dit was 'n groep mense wat tussen 1642 en 1675 meestal uit die Suidwes -Engelse graafskappe Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire en verskeie ander na die Chesapeake Bay -omgewing van Virginia en Maryland geëmigreer het, met 'n hoogtepunt van 1650's. Die rede vir hierdie migrasie was 'n bietjie ingewikkelder. Die Puriteine ​​het beheer in Engeland gekry en die Anglikane word nou vervolg. Sommige mense wat dit verlaat het, het dit gedoen as gevolg van godsdienstige vervolging, net soos die Puriteine. Maar daar was 'n sekondêre motivering vir sommige. Die erfeniswette in Engeland het alle vaste eiendom aan die oudste seun van die gesin gegee. Sommige van diegene wat Engeland verlaat het, was tweede of derde seuns van 'elite' -gesinne wat na 'n plek wou gaan waar hulle eie grond kon hê.

In die begin het Virginia mense met gemengde godsdienstige agtergronde aangetrek. Maar die belangrikste godsdiens was die Church of England (Episcopal). Nadat Virginia 'n koninklike kolonie geword het, het die Vergadering wette aangeneem wat die Kerk van Engeland die Staatskerk in Virginia (1632) gemaak het. Oor 'n tydperk het dit vir persone van afwykende godsdienste al hoe moeiliker geword om in Virginia te bly.

Ongeveer 25 persent van die persone in hierdie tweede migrasie was van die Engelse "elite"-hulle het rykdom, sosiale status en opleiding in Engeland gehad. Hulle was lidmate van die Anglikaanse Kerk en hulle was Royalisties in hul politiek. Die ander 75 persent was uit die laer klasse en het as bediendes, baie as bediendes, gekom om te werk op die groot plantasies wat deur die "kavaliers" opgerig is. Dit was arm, ongeletterd en ongeskool. Daar was onmiddellik 'n klassestelsel in Virginia wat nie bestaan ​​het nie en nie in New England goedgekeur sou word nie. In hierdie migrasie was mannetjies in getal vroue met ongeveer 4 tot 1. Die meerderheid van die wat gekom het, was ongetroude mans tussen die ouderdomme van 15 en 24.

Die gesinsgevoelens was net so sterk in hierdie groep as onder die Puriteine, maar verskil in wese. Daar was baie meer klem op die uitgebreide gesin. Lede van dieselfde uitgebreide familie was geneig om saam te woon en naby mekaar te bly. Die wooneenheid was die kernfamilie, maar die eenheid was die uitgebreide gesin. Hulle het in buurte bymekaar gestroom en hul dooies in familiepersele begrawe. (Anders as New England waar daar in elke stad gemeenskaplike begraafplase was.) Die terme "broer" en "neef" is meer losweg gebruik-en kan nie altyd letterlik opgeneem word as dit in rekords voorkom nie. Huishoudings het dikwels bediendes, losies en besoekers ingesluit. Almal is as familie behandel solank hulle in die huishouding was. Virginiërs was blykbaar nie agterdogtig oor vreemdelinge soos New Englanders nie.

In Virginia was gesinne geneig om kleiner te wees-hoofsaaklik omdat die sterftesyfer baie hoër was. Daar was meer stapsverhoudings om dieselfde rede. Hierdie groep deel die Puriteine ​​se sterk voorskrif om te trou. Bachelor en spinnekoppe is as onnatuurlik en gevaarlik vir die samelewing veroordeel. Maar die huwelik was nie 'n kontrak nie, want in New England was dit 'n onoplosbare unie, 'n heilige knoop wat nie losgemaak kon word nie. Alle huwelike is in die staatskerk (Anglikaan) uitgevoer en egskeiding is nie toegelaat nie. Daar was 5 stappe wat nodig was vir die huwelik: geskenk, verbod, godsdienstige seremonie, huweliksfees, seksuele voleinding. Skriftelike toestemming van ouers was nodig. Liefde was nie nodig voor die huwelik nie. As dit nie voorheen gebeur het nie, sou dit na verwagting volg. Ouers het 'n aktiewe rol gespeel in huweliksbesluite, maar het gewoonlik nie 'n kind gedwing om teen sy/haar wil te trou nie. Die eerste neefhuwelike was in Virginia goed en het gereeld gebeur. Dit volg hul patroon van 'hou dit in die gesin'. Huweliksfeeste was uitgebrei-anders as New England waar dit nie toegelaat is nie. Die gemiddelde huweliksouderdom vir 'n man was ongeveer 25-26 jaar in New England, maar vir vroue was dit jonger, 18-20 jaar oud. Sommige mans het nie getrou nie omdat daar eenvoudig nie genoeg vroue was om rond te gaan nie. Seksuele verhoudings was veronderstel om tot die huwelik beperk te wees, maar die strawwe was nie so erg soos in New England nie en vroue is swaarder gestraf as mans.

Die naampatrone vir kinders het die gebruike van Suidwes -Engeland gevolg. Kinders is dikwels vernoem na familielede, maar in 'n ander patroon as New England. Die oudste seun is vernoem na sy oupa aan vaderskant, die volgende seuntjie na die oupa aan moederskant, en na die pa. Dieselfde patroon is vir meisies gebruik. Hulle het minder Bybelse name gebruik as in New England en het kinders dikwels na Kings and Knights genoem-gunstelinge was Robert, Richard, Edward, George en Charles. Hulle het ook name van Christelike heiliges wat nie in die Bybel voorkom nie, gebruik en Engelse volksname-gunstelinge was Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances en Alice. Maar die Bybelse name van Maria, Elizabeth en Sarah was net so gewild as in New England. Kinderdoop is beoefen.

Die ouers in Virginia was meer toegeeflik as die ouers in New England. Kinders is eintlik aangemoedig om eiewillig te wees, maar daar word ook van hulle verwag om 'n paar uitgebreide rituele van selfbeheersing na te kom. Die idee van die ouer patriarg was baie sterk, en baie rituele het dit ook omring. Daar was min skole. Kinders van die elite -klas is tuis opgelei en die armes het ongeletterd gebly. Daar was geen townships soos in New England nie. Mense vestig hulle op plantasies en daar was klein markdorpe.

Die beste bron van rekords is die Episcopal Church, waar alle doop, huwelike en sterftes aangeteken is. Daar was 'n tydperk van ongeveer 100 jaar dat almal hierdie dinge in die staatskerk moes doen, selfs al was hulle nie lidmate nie.

As u hierdie groepe meer in diepte wil bestudeer, beveel ek aan dat u die boek, ALBION'S SEAD: Four Four Brits FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA, deur David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989 lees. Baie (maar nie al nie) materiaal hierin "Resep" is uit daardie boek.


Hierdie gewilde Britse lekkergoed kom na Amerika - resepte

AFDRUK MET TOESTEMMING

'N Reeks van vier dele oor die grootste groepe emigrante van die Britse eilande na koloniale Amerika. Hulle was: die PURITANE wat tussen 1629 en 1640 hoofsaaklik van East Anglia na die Massachusettsbaaikolonie gekom het, die CAVALIERS EN SERVANTS wat hoofsaaklik uit die suide van Engeland tussen 1642 en 1675 gekom het, die QUAKERS wat hoofsaaklik van die Engelse Midlands na Pennsylvania tussen 1675 en 1725 en die SKOTS-IERS wat tussen 1717 en 1775 hoofsaaklik van die Engels/Skotse grenslande (soms via Noord-Ierland) na Virginia (via Pennsylvania) gekom het.

In ALBION'S SEED verwys David Fischer na hierdie tweede groep immigrante as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". Terwyl ons aangaan, dink ek dat u sal sien hoekom. Dit was 'n groep mense wat tussen 1642 en 1675 meestal uit die Suidwes -Engelse graafskappe Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire en verskeie ander na die Chesapeake Bay -omgewing van Virginia en Maryland geëmigreer het, met 'n hoogtepunt van 1650's. Die rede vir hierdie migrasie was 'n bietjie ingewikkelder. Die Puriteine ​​het beheer in Engeland gekry en die Anglikane word nou vervolg. Sommige van die mense wat daar weg is, het dit gedoen as gevolg van godsdienstige vervolging, net soos die Puriteine. Maar daar was 'n sekondêre motivering vir sommige. Die erfeniswette in Engeland het alle vaste eiendom aan die oudste seun van die gesin gegee. Sommige van diegene wat Engeland verlaat het, was tweede of derde seuns van 'elite' -gesinne wat na 'n plek wou gaan waar hulle eie grond kon hê.

In die begin het Virginia mense met gemengde godsdienstige agtergronde aangetrek. Maar die belangrikste godsdiens was die Church of England (Episcopal). Nadat Virginia 'n koninklike kolonie geword het, het die Vergadering wette aangeneem wat die Kerk van Engeland die Staatskerk in Virginia (1632) gemaak het. Oor 'n tydperk het dit vir persone van afwykende godsdienste al hoe moeiliker geword om in Virginia te bly.

Ongeveer 25 persent van die persone in hierdie tweede migrasie was afkomstig van die Engelse "elite"-hulle het rykdom, sosiale status en opvoeding in Engeland gehad. Hulle was lidmate van die Anglikaanse Kerk en hulle was Royalisties in hul politiek. Die ander 75 persent was uit die laer klasse en het as bediendes, baie as bediende, gekom om te werk op die groot plantasies wat deur die "kavaliers" opgerig is. Dit was arm, ongeletterd en ongeskool. Daar was onmiddellik 'n klasstelsel in Virginia wat nie bestaan ​​het nie en nie in New England goedgekeur sou word nie. In hierdie migrasie was mannetjies in getal vroue met ongeveer 4 tot 1. Die meerderheid van die wat gekom het, was ongetroude mans tussen die ouderdomme van 15 en 24.

Die gesinsgevoelens was net so sterk in hierdie groep as onder die Puriteine, maar verskil in wese. Daar was baie meer klem op die uitgebreide gesin. Lede van dieselfde uitgebreide familie was geneig om saam te woon en naby mekaar te bly. Die wooneenheid was die kernfamilie, maar die eenheid was die uitgebreide gesin. Hulle het in buurte bymekaar gestroom en hul dooies in familiepersele begrawe. (Anders as New England waar daar in elke stad gemeenskaplike begraafplase was.) Die terme "broer" en "neef" is meer losweg gebruik-en kan nie altyd letterlik opgeneem word as dit in rekords voorkom nie. Huishoudings het dikwels bediendes, losies en besoekers ingesluit. Almal is as familie behandel solank hulle in die huis was. Virginiërs was blykbaar nie agterdogtig oor vreemdelinge soos New Englanders nie.

In Virginia was gesinne geneig om kleiner te wees-hoofsaaklik omdat die sterftesyfer baie hoër was. Daar was meer stapsverhoudings om dieselfde rede. Hierdie groep deel die Puriteine ​​se sterk voorskrif om te trou. Bachelor en spinnekoppe is as onnatuurlik en gevaarlik vir die samelewing veroordeel. Maar die huwelik was nie 'n kontrak nie, want in New England was dit 'n onoplosbare unie, 'n heilige knoop wat nie losgemaak kon word nie. Alle huwelike is in die staatskerk (Anglikaan) uitgevoer en egskeiding is nie toegelaat nie. Daar was 5 vereiste stappe vir die huwelik: geskenk, verbod, godsdienstige seremonie, huweliksfees, seksuele voleinding. Skriftelike toestemming van ouers was nodig. Liefde was nie nodig voor die huwelik nie. As dit nie voorheen gebeur het nie, sou dit na verwagting volg. Ouers het 'n aktiewe rol gespeel in huweliksbesluite, maar het gewoonlik nie 'n kind gedwing om teen sy/haar wil te trou nie. Die eerste neefhuwelike was in Virginia goed en het gereeld gebeur. Dit volg hul patroon van 'hou dit in die gesin'. Huweliksfeeste was uitgebrei-anders as New England waar dit nie toegelaat is nie. Die gemiddelde huweliksouderdom vir 'n man was ongeveer 25-26 jaar in New England, maar vir vroue was dit jonger, 18-20 jaar oud. Sommige mans het nie getrou nie omdat daar eenvoudig nie genoeg vroue was om rond te gaan nie. Seksuele verhoudings was veronderstel om tot die huwelik beperk te wees, maar die strawwe was nie so erg soos in New England nie en vroue is swaarder gestraf as mans.

Die naampatrone vir kinders het die gebruike van Suidwes -Engeland gevolg. Kinders is dikwels vernoem na familielede, maar in 'n ander patroon as New England. Die oudste seun is vernoem na sy oupa aan vaderskant, die volgende seuntjie na die oupa aan moederskant, en na die pa. Dieselfde patroon is vir meisies gebruik. Hulle het minder Bybelse name gebruik as in New England en het kinders dikwels na Kings and Knights genoem-gunstelinge was Robert, Richard, Edward, George en Charles. Hulle het ook name van Christelike heiliges wat nie in die Bybel voorkom nie, gebruik en Engelse volksname-gunstelinge was Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances en Alice. Maar die Bybelse name van Maria, Elizabeth en Sarah was net so gewild as in New England. Kinderdoop is beoefen.

Die ouers in Virginia was meer toegeeflik as die ouers in New England. Kinders is eintlik aangemoedig om eiewillig te wees, maar daar word ook van hulle verwag om nogal uitgebreide rituele van selfbeheersing na te kom. Die idee van die ouer patriarg was baie sterk, en baie rituele het dit ook omring. Daar was min skole. Kinders van die elite -klas is tuis opgelei en die armes het ongeletterd gebly. Daar was geen townships soos in New England nie. Mense vestig hulle op plantasies en daar was klein markdorpe.

Die beste bron van rekords is die Episcopal Church, waar alle doop, huwelike en sterftes aangeteken is. Daar was 'n tydperk van ongeveer 100 jaar dat almal hierdie dinge in die staatskerk moes doen, selfs al was hulle nie lidmate nie.

As u hierdie groepe meer in diepte wil bestudeer, beveel ek aan dat u die boek, ALBION'S SEAD: Four Four Brits FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA deur David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989 lees. Baie (maar nie alles) van die materiaal hierin "Resep" is uit daardie boek.


Hierdie gewilde Britse lekkergoed kom na Amerika - resepte

AFDRUK MET TOESTEMMING

'N Reeks van vier dele oor die grootste groepe emigrante van die Britse eilande na koloniale Amerika. Hulle was: die PURITANE wat tussen 1629 en 1640 hoofsaaklik van East Anglia na die Massachusettsbaaikolonie gekom het, die CAVALIERS EN SERVANTS wat hoofsaaklik uit die suide van Engeland tussen 1642 en 1675 gekom het, die QUAKERS wat hoofsaaklik van die Engelse Midlands na Pennsylvania tussen 1675 en 1725 en die SKOTS-IERS wat tussen 1717 en 1775 hoofsaaklik van die Engels/Skotse grenslande (soms via Noord-Ierland) na Virginia (via Pennsylvania) gekom het.

In ALBION'S SEED verwys David Fischer na hierdie tweede groep immigrante as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". Terwyl ons aangaan, dink ek dat u sal sien hoekom. Dit was 'n groep mense wat tussen 1642 en 1675 meestal uit die Suidwes -Engelse graafskappe Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire en verskeie ander na die Chesapeake Bay -omgewing van Virginia en Maryland geëmigreer het, met 'n hoogtepunt van 1650's. Die rede vir hierdie migrasie was 'n bietjie ingewikkelder. Die Puriteine ​​het beheer in Engeland gekry en die Anglikane word nou vervolg. Sommige mense wat dit verlaat het, het dit gedoen as gevolg van godsdienstige vervolging, net soos die Puriteine. Maar daar was 'n sekondêre motivering vir sommige. Die erfeniswette in Engeland het alle vaste eiendom aan die oudste seun van die gesin gegee. Sommige van diegene wat Engeland verlaat het, was tweede of derde seuns van 'elite' -gesinne wat na 'n plek wou gaan waar hulle eie grond kon hê.

In die begin het Virginia mense met gemengde godsdienstige agtergronde aangetrek. Maar die belangrikste godsdiens was die Church of England (Episcopal). Nadat Virginia 'n koninklike kolonie geword het, het die Vergadering wette aangeneem wat die Kerk van Engeland die Staatskerk in Virginia (1632) gemaak het. Oor 'n tydperk het dit vir persone van afwykende godsdienste al hoe moeiliker geword om in Virginia te bly.

Ongeveer 25 persent van die persone in hierdie tweede migrasie was van die Engelse "elite"-hulle het rykdom, sosiale status en opleiding in Engeland gehad. Hulle was lidmate van die Anglikaanse Kerk en hulle was Royalisties in hul politiek. Die ander 75 persent was uit die laer klasse en het as bediendes, baie as bediendes, gekom om te werk op die groot plantasies wat deur die "kavaliers" opgerig is. Dit was arm, ongeletterd en ongeskool. Daar was onmiddellik 'n klassestelsel in Virginia wat nie bestaan ​​het nie en nie in New England goedgekeur sou word nie. In hierdie migrasie was mannetjies in getal vroue met ongeveer 4 tot 1. Die meerderheid van die wat gekom het, was ongetroude mans tussen die ouderdomme van 15 en 24.

Die gesinsgevoelens was net so sterk in hierdie groep as onder die Puriteine, maar verskil in wese. Daar was baie meer klem op die uitgebreide gesin. Lede van dieselfde uitgebreide familie was geneig om saam te woon en naby mekaar te bly. Die wooneenheid was die kernfamilie, maar die eenheid was die uitgebreide gesin. Hulle het bymekaar gestroom in woonbuurte en hul dooies begrawe in familiepersele. (Anders as New England waar daar in elke stad gemeenskaplike begraafplase was.) Die terme "broer" en "neef" is meer losweg gebruik-en kan nie altyd letterlik opgeneem word as dit in rekords voorkom nie. Huishoudings het dikwels bediendes, losies en besoekers ingesluit. Almal is as familie behandel solank hulle in die huishouding was. Virginiërs was blykbaar nie agterdogtig oor vreemdelinge soos New Englanders nie.

In Virginia was gesinne geneig om kleiner te wees-hoofsaaklik omdat die sterftesyfer baie hoër was. Daar was meer stapsverhoudings om dieselfde rede. Hierdie groep deel die Puriteine ​​se sterk voorskrif om te trou. Bachelor en spinnekoppe is as onnatuurlik en gevaarlik vir die samelewing veroordeel. Maar die huwelik was nie 'n kontrak nie, want in New England was dit 'n onoplosbare unie, 'n heilige knoop wat nie losgemaak kon word nie. Alle huwelike is in die staatskerk (Anglikaan) uitgevoer en egskeiding is nie toegelaat nie. Daar was 5 vereiste stappe vir die huwelik: geskenk, verbod, godsdienstige seremonie, huweliksfees, seksuele voleinding. Skriftelike toestemming van ouers was nodig. Liefde was nie nodig voor die huwelik nie. As dit nie voorheen gebeur het nie, sou dit na verwagting volg. Ouers het 'n aktiewe rol gespeel in huweliksbesluite, maar het gewoonlik nie 'n kind gedwing om teen sy/haar wil te trou nie. Die eerste neefhuwelike was in Virginia goed en het gereeld gebeur. Dit volg hul patroon van 'hou dit in die gesin'. Huweliksfeeste was uitgebrei-anders as New England waar dit nie toegelaat is nie. Die gemiddelde huweliksouderdom vir 'n man was ongeveer 25-26 jaar in New England, maar vir vroue was dit jonger, 18-20 jaar oud. Sommige mans het nie getrou nie omdat daar eenvoudig nie genoeg vroue was om rond te gaan nie. Seksuele verhoudings was veronderstel om tot die huwelik beperk te wees, maar die strawwe was nie so erg soos in New England nie en vroue is swaarder gestraf as mans.

Die naampatrone vir kinders het die gebruike van Suidwes -Engeland gevolg. Kinders is dikwels vernoem na familielede, maar in 'n ander patroon as New England. Die oudste seun is vernoem na sy oupa aan vaderskant, die volgende seuntjie na die oupa aan moederskant, en na die pa. Dieselfde patroon is vir meisies gebruik. Hulle het minder Bybelse name as in New England gebruik en kinders dikwels na Kings and Knights genoem-gunstelinge was Robert, Richard, Edward, George en Charles. Hulle het ook name van Christelike heiliges wat nie in die Bybel voorkom nie, gebruik en Engelse volksname-gunstelinge was Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances en Alice. Maar die Bybelse name van Maria, Elizabeth en Sarah was net so gewild as in New England. Kinderdoop is beoefen.

Die ouers in Virginia was meer toegeeflik as die ouers in New England. Kinders is eintlik aangemoedig om eiewillig te wees, maar daar word ook van hulle verwag om nogal uitgebreide rituele van selfbeheersing na te kom. Die idee van die ouer patriarg was baie sterk, en baie rituele het dit ook omring. Daar was min skole. Kinders van die elite -klas is tuis opgelei en die armes het ongeletterd gebly. Daar was geen townships soos in New England nie. Mense vestig hulle op plantasies en daar was klein markdorpe.

Die beste bron van rekords is die Episcopal Church, waar alle doop, huwelike en sterftes aangeteken is. Daar was 'n tydperk van ongeveer 100 jaar toe almal hierdie dinge in die staatskerk moes doen, selfs al was hulle nie lidmate nie.

As u hierdie groepe meer in diepte wil bestudeer, beveel ek aan dat u die boek, ALBION'S SEAD: Four Four Brits FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA, deur David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989 lees. Baie (maar nie al nie) materiaal hierin "Resep" is uit daardie boek.


Hierdie gewilde Britse lekkergoed kom na Amerika - resepte

AFDRUK MET TOESTEMMING

'N Reeks van vier dele oor die grootste groepe emigrante van die Britse eilande na koloniale Amerika. Hulle was: die PURITANSE wat tussen 1629 en 1640 hoofsaaklik van East Anglia na die Massachusettsbaaikolonie gekom het, die CAVALIERS EN SERVANTS wat hoofsaaklik van die suide van Engeland na Virginia gekom het tussen 1642 en 1675, die QUAKERS wat hoofsaaklik van die Engelse Midlands na Pennsylvania tussen 1675 en 1725 en die SKOTS-IERS wat tussen 1717 en 1775 hoofsaaklik van die Engels/Skotse grenslande (soms via Noord-Ierland) na Virginia (via Pennsylvania) gekom het.

In ALBION'S SEED verwys David Fischer na hierdie tweede groep immigrante as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". Terwyl ons aangaan, dink ek dat u sal sien hoekom. Dit was 'n groep mense wat tussen 1642 en 1675 meestal uit die Suidwes -Engelse graafskappe Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire en verskeie ander na die Chesapeake Bay -omgewing van Virginia en Maryland geëmigreer het, met 'n hoogtepunt van 1650's. Die rede vir hierdie migrasie was 'n bietjie ingewikkelder. Die Puriteine ​​het beheer in Engeland gekry en die Anglikane word nou vervolg. Sommige mense wat dit verlaat het, het dit gedoen as gevolg van godsdienstige vervolging, net soos die Puriteine. Maar daar was 'n sekondêre motivering vir sommige. Die erfeniswette in Engeland het alle vaste eiendom aan die oudste seun van die gesin gegee. Sommige van diegene wat Engeland verlaat het, was tweede of derde seuns van 'elite' -gesinne wat na 'n plek wou gaan waar hulle eie grond kon hê.

In die begin het Virginia mense met gemengde godsdienstige agtergronde aangetrek. Maar die belangrikste godsdiens was die Church of England (Episcopal). Nadat Virginia 'n koninklike kolonie geword het, het die Vergadering wette aangeneem wat die Kerk van Engeland die Staatskerk in Virginia (1632) gemaak het. Oor 'n tydperk het dit vir persone van afwykende godsdienste al hoe moeiliker geword om in Virginia te bly.

Ongeveer 25 persent van die persone in hierdie tweede migrasie was van die Engelse "elite"-hulle het rykdom, sosiale status en opleiding in Engeland gehad. Hulle was lidmate van die Anglikaanse Kerk en hulle was Royalisties in hul politiek. Die ander 75 persent was uit die laer klasse en het as bediendes, baie as bediende, gekom om te werk op die groot plantasies wat deur die "kavaliers" opgerig is. Dit was arm, ongeletterd en ongeskool. Daar was onmiddellik 'n klassestelsel in Virginia wat nie bestaan ​​het nie en nie in New England goedgekeur sou word nie. In hierdie migrasie was mannetjies in getal vroue met ongeveer 4 tot 1. Die meerderheid van die wat gekom het, was ongetroude mans tussen die ouderdomme van 15 en 24.

Die gesinsgevoelens was net so sterk in hierdie groep as onder die Puriteine, maar verskil in wese. Daar was baie meer klem op die uitgebreide gesin. Lede van dieselfde uitgebreide familie was geneig om saam te woon en naby mekaar te bly. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Skriftelike toestemming van ouers was nodig. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Skriftelike toestemming van ouers was nodig. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Skriftelike toestemming van ouers was nodig. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Skriftelike toestemming van ouers was nodig. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Skriftelike toestemming van ouers was nodig. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


This Popular British Candy Is Coming to America - Recipes

REPRINTED WITH PERMISSION

A four-part series on the largest groups of emigrants from the British Isles to Colonial America. They were: the PURITANS who came, primarily, from East Anglia to the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1629 and 1640 the CAVALIERS AND SERVANTS who came, primarily, from the south of England to Virginia between 1642 and 1675 the QUAKERS who came, primarily, from the English Midlands to Pennsylvania between 1675 and 1725 and the SCOTCH-IRISH who came, primarily, from the English/Scottish border counties (sometimes via northern Ireland) to Virginia (via Pennsylvania) between 1717 and 1775.

In ALBION'S SEED , David Fischer referred to this second group of immigrants as "Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants". As we go along, I think you will see why. These were a group of people who emigrated mostly from the Southwestern English Counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset, Devonshire, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire and several others to the Chesapeake Bay area of Virginia and Maryland between 1642 and 1675, the peak period being the 1650's. The reason for this migration was a bit more complicated. The Puritans had gotten control in England and the Anglicans were now being persecuted. So some of the people who left did it for the reason of religious persecution, just as the Puritans had. But there was a secondary motivation for some. The laws of inheritance in England gave all real property to the eldest son of the family. Some of those who left England were second or third sons of "elite" families who wanted to go to a place where they could have land of their own.

In the beginning, Virginia attracted people of mixed religious backgrounds. But the main religion was the Church of England (Episcopal). After Virginia became a royal colony, the Assembly passed laws making the Church of England the State Church in Virginia (1632). Over a period of time, it became more and more difficult for persons of dissenting religions to remain in Virginia.

About 25 percent of the persons in this second migration were from the English "elite"--they had wealth, social standing, and education in England. They were members of the Anglican Church and they were Royalist in their politics. The other 75 percent were from the lower classes and came as servants, many as indentured servants, to work on the large plantations established by the "cavaliers". These were poor, illiterate, and unskilled. Right away, there was a class system established in Virginia that did not exist and would not have been approved of in New England. In this migration, males outnumbered females by about 4 to 1. A majority of those who came were unmarried males between the ages of 15 and 24.

The family feelings were just as strong in this group as among the Puritans, but different in substance. There was much more emphasis on the extended family. Members of the same extended family tended to settle together and stay near each other. The unit of residence was the nuclear family, but the unit of association was the extended family. They flocked together in neighborhoods and buried their dead in family plots. (Unlike New England where there were common burial grounds in each town.) The terms "brother" and "cousin" were used more loosely--and can't always be taken literally when found in records. Households often included servants, lodgers and visitors. All were treated as family as long as they were in the household. Virginians didn't seem to be suspicious of strangers as New Englanders were.

In Virginia, families tended to be smaller--mainly because the death rate was much higher. There were more step-relationships for the same reason. This group shared the Puritans' strong imperative to marry. Bachelors and spinsters were condemned as unnatural and dangerous to society. But marriage was not a contract as in New England it was a indissoluble union, a sacred knot that could not be untied. All marriages were performed in the state church (Anglican) and divorce was not allowed. There were 5 required steps to marriage: espousal, banns, religious ceremony, marriage feast, sexual consummation. Skriftelike toestemming van ouers was nodig. Love was not thought to be necessary before marriage. When it didn't occur before, it was expected to follow. Parents had an active role in marriage decisions but didn't usually force a child to marry against his/her will. First cousin marriages were okay in Virginia and often happened. This followed their pattern of "keep it in the family". Marriage feasts were elaborate--unlike New England where they weren't allowed. The average age at marriage for a male was about the same as in New England, 25-26, but for females it was younger, 18-20. Some men did not marry because there simply weren't enough women to go around. Sexual relationships were supposed to be confined to marriage, but punishments were not so severe as in New England and females were punished more severely than males.

The naming patterns for children followed the customs of Southwest England. Children were often named for family members, but in a different pattern than New England. The eldest son was named for his paternal grandfather, next son for the maternal grandfather, next for the father. The same pattern was used for girls. They used fewer Biblical names than in New England and often named children for Kings and Knights--favorites were Robert, Richard, Edward, George, and Charles. They also used names of Christian saints not found in the Bible and English folk names--favorites were Margaret, Jane, Catherine, Frances, and Alice. But the Biblical names of Mary, Elizabeth and Sarah were just as popular as in New England. Infant Christening was practiced.

The parents in Virginia were more indulgent than the parents in New England. Children were actually encouraged to be self-willed, but they were also expected to observe some rather elaborate rituals of self-restraint. The elder patriarch idea was very strong and much ritual surrounded it also. There were few schools. Children of the elite class were educated at home and the poor remained illiterate. There were no townships as in New England. People settled on plantations and there were small market villages.

The best source of records is the Episcopal Church, where all baptisms, marriages and deaths were recorded. There was a period of about 100 years when everyone had to do these things in the state church, even if not a member.

If you would like to study these groups in more depth, I recommend that you read the book, ALBION'S SEED: FOUR BRITISH FOLKWAYS IN AMERICA by David Hackett Fischer, Oxford University Press, 1989. Much (but not all) of the material in this "Recipe" is from that book.


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