Skemerkelkresepte, spiritualieë en plaaslike kroeë

Studie sê 61 persent van ons kruideniersware -aankope is voedsel wat baie verwerk is

Studie sê 61 persent van ons kruideniersware -aankope is voedsel wat baie verwerk is

'N Nuwe studie van die American Journal of Clinical Nutrition het Amerikaanse verbruikersgewoontes verbind met meestal verwerkte voedsel

Al die neigings in organiese en plaaslike produkte? Ons is dalk net besig om onsself te mislei.

Alhoewel die verkoop van organiese voedsel aan die toeneem is, moet u uself nie bedrieg nie: ons laai steeds ons winkelwaens vol skyfies en koekies. 'N Nuwe studie van die American Journal of Clinical Nutrition het bevind dat byna twee derdes-61 persent-van die Amerikaanse kruideniersware aankope is hoogs verwerkte voedsel. Boonop bestaan ​​77 persent van die Amerikaanse kruideniersware -aankope uit matige of hoogs verwerkte voedsel. Dit beteken dat die gemiddelde Amerikaner elke dag meer as 1 000 kalorieë verwerkte voedsel verbruik.

Maar moenie te senuweeagtig raak nie en begin u spens skoonmaak: die woord verwerk, volgens USDA standaarde, word gedefinieer as "'N kleinhandelsitem wat afkomstig is van 'n gedekte goedere wat spesifieke verwerking ondergaan het, wat 'n verandering in die karakter van die gedekte goedere veroorsaak het." Volgens hierdie definisie is gepasteuriseerde suiwelprodukte, soos melk, jogurt en kaas, sowel as bevrore groente, verwerkte voedsel: nie net u gewone verdagtes soos Oreos en Twinkies nie.

"Aankope van hoogs verwerkte voedsel is 'n dominante, onwisselbare deel van die Amerikaanse aankooppatrone, maar dit kan 'n hoër versadigde vet-, suiker- en natriuminhoud in vergelyking met minder verwerkte voedsel bevat," het die skrywers tot die gevolgtrekking gekom. "Groot variasie in voedingsinhoud dui daarop dat voedselkeuses binne kategorieë belangrik kan wees."


Studie sê 61 persent van ons kruideniersware -aankope is voedsel wat baie verwerk is - resepte

Om die potensiële verband tussen die verwerking van ultra-verwerkte voedsel en die oorsaak van sterftes te bepaal en die effek van teoretiese vervanging van nie-verwerkte voedsel deur teoretiese iso-kalorieë te ondersoek.

Pasiënte en metodes

'N Bevolkingsgebaseerde groep van 11,898 individue (gemiddelde ouderdom 46,9 jaar en 50,5% vroue) is gekies uit die ENRICA-studie, 'n verteenwoordigende steekproef van die nie-geïnstitusionaliseerde Spaanse bevolking. Dieetinligting is ingesamel deur 'n gevalideerde rekenaargebaseerde dieetgeskiedenis en volgens die NOVA-klassifikasie ingedeel volgens hul verwerkingsgraad. Totale sterftes is verkry uit die National Death Index. Die opvolg het geduur vanaf die basislyn (2008-2010) tot die sterftedatum of 31 Desember 2016, wat ook al die eerste was. Die verband tussen kwartiele van die verbruik van ultra-verwerkte voedsel en sterftes is geanaliseer deur Cox-modelle wat aangepas is vir die belangrikste verwarring. Beperkte kubieke splines is gebruik om dosis-responsverhoudings te bepaal by die gebruik van isokaloriese substitusies.

Resultate

Die gemiddelde verbruik van ultra-verwerkte voedsel was 385 g/dag (24,4% van die totale energie-inname). Na 'n gemiddelde opvolg van 7,7 jaar (93,599 persoonjare) het 440 sterftes voorgekom. Die gevaarverhouding (en 95% CI) vir sterftes in die hoogste versus die laagste kwartiel van ultra-verwerkte voedselverbruik was 1,44 (95% CI, 1,01-2,07 Bl tendens = .03) in persentasie energie en 1.46 (95% CI, 1.04-2.05 Bl tendens = .03) in gram per dag per kilogram. Isokaloriese substitusie van ultraverwerkte voedsel met onverwerkte of minimaal verwerkte voedsel hou verband met 'n beduidende nie-lineêre afname in sterftes.

Afsluiting

'N Hoër verbruik van ultra-verwerkte voedsel hou verband met 'n hoër sterftesyfer in die algemene bevolking. Verder sou die teoretiese isokaloriese substitusie ultra-verwerkte voedsel deur onverwerkte of minimaal verwerkte voedsel 'n verlaging van die sterftesrisiko veronderstel. As dit bevestig word, ondersteun hierdie bevindinge die noodsaaklikheid van die ontwikkeling van nuwe voedingsbeleid en gidse op nasionale en internasionale vlak.


6 ultra-verwerkte voedsel om nou weg te gooi

Plus gesonder weergawes wat u by die huis en mdashinstead kan koop en maak.

'N Ontstellende studie wat in die tydskrif gepubliseer is BMJ Oop het aan die lig gebring dat 60% van die kalorieë in die gemiddelde Amerikaanse en daaglikse dieet afkomstig is van voedsel wat met 'n groot hoeveelheid verwerk word, wat presies presies is soos dit klink: verwerkte voedsel wat bymiddels bevat en soos gehidrogeneerde olies, kunsmatige geure en emulgatoren, met lang name wat u nie aanneem nie herken.

Die navorsers het ook bevind dat hierdie ultra-verwerkte voedsel 90% van die bygevoegde suiker uitmaak, wat ons risiko vir vetsug, tipe 2-diabetes en hartsiektes verhoog. Yikes.   In 'n onderhoud met  HealthDay Nuus,  leierstudie-outeur ਎uridice Martinez Steele het die belangrikheid van die skoonmaak van ons dieet beklemtoon.   & quot .

Gelukkig is dit makliker om tuisgemaakte weergawes van u gunsteling lekkernye te skep as wat u dink.  Gesondheid& aposs bydraende voeding redakteur Cynthia Sass, MPH, RD. U hoef net die etikette noukeurig te lees:   & quot My mening is dat as die bestanddeellys lyk na 'n resep wat u in u eie kombuis sou kon gemaak het, u op die regte pad is. & Quot

Hier wys Sass op die ses ergste verwerkte voedsel in u spens op die oomblik, en#xA0 en gesonder weergawes wat u tuis kan maak.

Skyfies

Die bekendste oortreders, sê Sass, is handelsmerke wat kunsmatige geure, kleure en preserveermiddels bevat. (Dit beteken dat alles neon-oranje uit is.) Die beste opsie is 'n basiese ketelskyfie met net drie eenvoudige bestanddele: aartappels, olywe of sonneblomolie en sout. Ander goeie opsies sluit in organiese blou mielieskyfies en#xA0popcorn, wat min kalorieë bevat, ryk aan vesel is en propvol antioksidante is. Of nog beter, volg die selfdoenroete.   Gebakte boerenkoolskyfies is maklik om te maak, net soos oondgeroosterde patatskyfies. Volg die stap-vir-stap instruksies in die video hieronder.

Verpakte peuselkoeke

Die koeke wat met plastiek toegedraai is en wat blykbaar maande lank in u spens hou, is propvol suiker en preserveermiddels (vandaar die lang lewe). Dit is 'n beter opsie om jou eie lekkernye op te slaan, sê Sass. U kan 'n voedingsryke alternatief vir wit meel, soos kekerertjie- of amandelmeel, gebruik, en u kan ook suiker en botter verminder met gesonder plaasvervangers. Sass beveel aan dat die helfte van die suiker in die resep vervang word met puree (piesangs en dadelpasta werk goed) en elke eetlepel botter met 'n halwe eetlepel avokado vervang.

Lus vir 'n soet oplossing, stat? "Ek hou daarvan om vars vrugte te neem, bessies, skywe pere, wat ook al in die seisoen is, en dit in 'n pan met 'n bietjie suurlemoenwater warm te maak," sê Sass. Dan maak ek tuisgemaakte krummels met amandelbotter, hawer en kaneel en strooi dit bo -oor die vrugte.

Sekere brode

U weet reeds om ultra-verwerkte witbrood te vermy ten gunste van veselryke volgraanbrood en dit bied 'n hele paar voordele vir u. Maar dit kan lastig wees om die regte brood te kies, want selfs variëteite met 'n gesonde voorkoms kan bymiddels bevat: "Brood is een van die kosse waar die lees van die bestanddele baie belangrik is," verduidelik Sass. Oor die algemeen beveel sy aan om 'n volgraan- of glutenvrye of selfs graanvrye brood te soek wat geen kunsmatige bymiddels of preserveermiddels bevat nie. As u twyfel, kyk na die afdeling vir bevrore voedsel, sê Sass. Dit maak sin: Sommige van die gesondste brode & quotnodig het om gevries te word omdat dit geen preserveermiddels bevat nie, ”verduidelik sy.

Dieet koeldrank

Ja, jy het dit al voorheen gehoor. Maar ernstig, dit is tyd en tyd om u dieetkoffie vir eens en altyd te laat vaar. Benewens die feit dat koeldrank nul voedingswaarde het, bevat dit kunsmatige versoeters soos aspartaam, sakkarien en sukralose, en is dit gekoppel aan hoofpyn, depressie en 'n verhoogde risiko vir tipe 2 -diabetes. As u gewoond kan raak aan die ou H2O, kies dan vir mousserende of gegeurde water. & quot; Kies net een wat slegs koolzuurhoudende water en natuurlike geure bevat, & quot; sê Sass.

Bevrore pizza

Ongelukkig is daar nie 'n minimaal verwerkte weergawe van voorafgemaakte pizza nie. Die beste alternatief, sê Sass, is om jou eie deeg te maak. Sy bak 'n ligte, skilferde kors van gekapte blomkool wat selfs die pizzaliefhebbers behaag, en laai dit op met groente en vars groente.

Lekkergoed

Eerstens, die slegte nuus oor lekkergoed: Die meeste van die filmteatermerke wat u ken en liefhet, bevat mieliesiroop met hoë fruktose en kunsmatige geure. Maar die goeie nuus is daar is beter opsies daar buite. "Sewentig persent donker sjokolade is 'n uitstekende alternatief vir lekkergoed," sê Sass en merk op dat dit 'n goeie bron is van   magnesium en#xA0 en antioksidante, wat bloeddruk en cholesterol kan verlaag. Vir 'n happie bederf hou sy van Dagoba Organic Chocolate Chocodrops ($ 8 ਊmazon.com). 'Sommige van my kliënte hou 'n sak in die vrieskas en gryp 'n handvol van die bevrore skyfies as hulle lus is vir iets soets,' sê sy. En as u van lekkergoed verkies, beveel Sass 'n Duitse handelsmerk aan, genaamd Seitenbacher Gummi Fruit ($ 20 vir 'n dosyn sakke van 3 oz. En#xA0amazon.com). "Hulle soetheid kom uit regte vrugtesappe, soos appel en beet," sê sy.

Meld u aan by die   om ons beste verhale in u inkassie te laat aflewerGesonde leefstyl nuusbrief


20 Gesonde verwerkte voedsel wat u volgens dieetkundiges moet eet

Verwerkte voedsel kry dikwels 'n slegte rap, aangesien baie daarvan met suiker, natrium en vet gevul is, maar nie alle verpakte neus is gelyk nie. Alhoewel vars, gesonde kosse altyd die voorkeur geniet, is daar baie verwerkte voedsel wat heeltemal gesond is, en u mis hul voedingstowwe en gemak wat u gesondheid bevorder, as u besluit om dit uit u dieet te verwyder.

Die sleutel is om die voeding te lees en die bestanddele etiket versigtig en kyk uit vir rooi vlae, soos bygevoegde suiker, MSG, en ongesonde olies. Ideaal gesproke wil u verpakte voedsel met minimale bestanddele eet. Byvoorbeeld, sommige brood wat in die winkel gekoop is, bevat 'n groot hoeveelheid sout en meer as wat u in 'n sny sou verwag en as u meer as een geniet, kan die natrium vinnig optel. Dit gesê, u kan slim wees oor die keuse van die verwerkte voedsel wat u koop. Van boontjiepasta tot souse tot groenteburgers, hier is die geriefsvoedsel wat dieetkundiges altyd in hul kombuis hou.

Dit is 'n algemene wanopvatting dat die bereiding van gesonde maaltye beteken dat u slegs om die omtrek van die kruidenierswinkel wil koop. Maar as u dit doen, mis u baie voedsame keuses in die binnegange, insluitend die vrieskas, waar u baie veselryke brode en bevrore groente en vrugte vind.

Bevrore wilde bloubessies gee ons die hele jaar deur toegang tot hierdie breinbeskermende bessies. Hulle word gekies met die hoogste rypheid en hul voedingsinhoud word beter behou as vars, sê Maggie Moon, MS, RD, skrywer, Die MIND Dieet. Die grootste deel van die breingesondheidsnavorsing oor bloubessies is uitgevoer oor wilde bloubessies, wat gekonsentreerde geurige uitbarstings van antioksidante is, en voeg sy by, dus moenie bang wees om in hierdie verpakte vrugte te grawe nie. U vind moontlik dat sommige bevrore vrugte ook goedkoper is as hul vars eweknieë.

U sal nie 'n sak chia -sade in die gang van die produk vind nie, maar dit beteken nie dat dit 'n plek in u wa minder werd is nie.

Chia-sade bevat baie omega-3-vetsure en kalsium, gebaseer op plante, twee belangrike voedingstowwe waarvan mense nie genoeg kry nie. 'N Ons is ook ryk aan vesel (11 gram), "sê Moon.' N Studie van 2019 uit die joernaal Lancet het bevestig dat die daaglikse gebruik van 25 tot 29 gram vesel u kan help om langer te lewe. U kan dit by smoothies, jogurt- of hawermoutbakke voeg, of u kan selfs 'n chia -saadpoeding vir ontbyt oornag.

Blikkiesbone word gereeld met sout gelaai om dit te bewaar, maar jy kan dit vergoed deur die boontjies onder water te spoel voordat jy dit by die gereg voeg. Moon sê deur dit te doen, verminder natrium met 40 persent.

Vir die nagte dat u dit nie in u het nie, is geblikte boontjies 'n lewensredder en 'n stapelvoedsel in my spens. Kekerertjies is een van my gunsteling plantproteïene, en werk veral goed in maaltye wat deur Mediterreense en Midde-Ooste geïnspireer is, sê Moon. Hulle verkry ook 'n plantaardige proteïen wat ook 'n uitstekende veselbron is.

Mense voeg matcha by hul smoothies, koekies en hawer oornag, en dit is vir 'n goeie rede. Matcha is 'n poeiermelk wat voortspruit uit die fyn maal van blare, wat beteken dat u die voordele van die hele blaar kan benut. U kan matcha -poeier in die tee- en koffiegang van u kruidenierswinkel vind, en sommige gesondheidswinkels kan dit ook dra.

Alle groen tee het voordele vir fokus en geheue, maar matcha groen teepoeier lei tot 'n groter konsentrasie van die voordelige verbindings in groen tee, "sê Moon. 'n Oorsig van 49 menslike proewe uit die tydskrif Huidige farmaseutiese ontwerp dui daarop dat fitochemikalieë soos L-theanine en kafeïen wat in matcha voorkom, die bui, kognitiewe prestasie en skerpte verbeter.

OK, so boonpasta word vir sommige nie as 'n volvoedsel beskou nie, maar langs gesnyde volgraanbrood is dit een van die voedsaamste verpakte voedsel wat u kan kry. Boonpasta's bevat meer proteïene en vesel as tradisionele witnoedels en selfs volgraanvariëteite. Boonop is hulle glutenvry.

Moon's go-to is Banza se kekerertpasta, maar daar is ander handelsmerke, soos Explore Cuisine, Barilla en Ancient Harvest, wat boontjies en volgraan bevat. & ldquoBanza-kekerertpasta het 'n goeie tekstuur en mondgevoel, wat dit 'n opofferingsruil vir verfynde graan maak. Voedingswaarde bevat ongeveer twee keer die plantproteïen (25 gram) en meer as vier keer die vesel (13 gram) standaardpasta, sê Moon.


Verwerkte voedsel en gesondheid

Verwerkte voedsel word oor die algemeen beskou as minderwaardig as onverwerkte voedsel. Hulle dink moontlik aan 'n verpakte voedsel wat baie bestanddele bevat, selfs kunsmatige kleure, geure of ander chemiese bymiddels. Daar word voorgestel dat verwerkte voedsel 'n bydraer is tot die vetsug-epidemie en die toenemende voorkoms van chroniese siektes soos hartsiektes en diabetes. Die definisie van 'n verwerkte voedsel wissel egter baie, afhangende van die bron:

  • Die Amerikaanse Departement van Landbou (USDA) definieer 'n verwerkte voedsel as 'n voedsel wat enige veranderinge aan sy natuurlike toestand ondergaan het - dit wil sê alle rou landbougoedere wat aan was, skoonmaak, maal, sny, kap, verhit, gepasteuriseer, geblansjeer, kook , blik, vries, droog, dehidreer, meng, verpak of ander prosedures wat die voedsel van sy natuurlike toestand verander. Die voedsel kan die byvoeging van ander bestanddele insluit, soos preserveermiddels, geure, voedingstowwe en ander voedseladditiewe of stowwe wat goedgekeur is vir gebruik in voedselprodukte, soos sout, suikers en vette.
  • Die Instituut vir Voedseltegnoloë bevat addisionele verwerkingsterme soos berging, filtrering, fermentasie, ekstraksie, konsentrasie, mikrogolf en verpakking. [1]

Volgens hierdie standaarde sou feitlik alle voedsel wat in die supermark verkoop word, tot 'n mate as "verwerk" geklassifiseer word. Omdat voedsel begin agteruitgaan en voedingstowwe verloor sodra dit geoes word, ondergaan selfs die appels in die gangpad vier of meer verwerkingsstappe voordat dit aan die verbruiker verkoop word. Daarom is dit in die praktyk nuttig om te onderskei tussen die verskillende grade van voedselverwerking.

Tipes voedselverwerking

'N Gewilde stelsel om verwerkte voedsel te klassifiseer, is in 2009 bekendgestel, die NOVA -klassifikasie genoem. Dit bevat vier kategorieë waarin die mate waarin 'n voedsel verwerk word, uiteensit: [2,3]

Onverwerkte of minimaal verwerkte voedsel

Verwerkte kulinêre bestanddele

Verwerkte voedsel

Ultra-verwerkte voedsel

Die NOVA -stelsel word erken deur die World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization en die Pan American Health Organization, maar tans nie in die VSA deur die Food and Drug Administration of USDA nie. NOVA is gekritiseer omdat dit te algemeen was in die indeling van sekere voedsel, wat verwarring veroorsaak. Byvoorbeeld, jogurt kan in meer as een kategorie val: gewone jogurt word minimaal verwerk, maar vrugtejogurt met bygevoegde versoeters kan óf verwerk óf ultra-verwerk word, afhangende van hoeveel versoeter en ander chemiese bymiddels daarin is. NOVA bied ook nie volledige lyste met spesifieke voedsel in elke kategorie nie, sodat die verbruiker kan raai waar elkeen kan val.

Is verwerkte voedsel ongesond?

Daar bestaan ​​geen twyfel dat ten minste sommige verwerkte voedsel in die meeste mense se kombuise voorkom nie. Hulle kan tydbesparend wees as u maaltye voorberei, en sommige verwerkte en versterkte voedsel bied belangrike voedingstowwe wat andersins nie in 'n besige huishouding of met 'n beperkte voedselbegroting verkry kan word nie. Uit voedingsoogpunt kan verwerkte en selfs ultra-verwerkte voedsel belangrike voedingstowwe verskaf. Sommige voedingstowwe, soos proteïen, word natuurlik behou tydens die verwerking, en ander soos B -vitamiene en yster kan teruggevoeg word as dit tydens verwerking verlore gaan. Vrugte en groente wat vinnig gevries word na die oes, kan die meeste vitamien C behou.

Deur die geskiedenis heen het voedsel wat met spesifieke voedingstowwe versterk is, tekorte en hul verwante gesondheidsprobleme in sekere bevolkings voorkom. Voorbeelde hiervan is baba graan versterk met yster en B -vitamiene om bloedarmoede te voorkom, melk versterk met vitamien D om ragitis te voorkom, koringmeel versterk met foliensuur om geboorte afwykings te voorkom en jodium wat by sout gevoeg word om struma te voorkom.

Verwerking volgens sekere metodes soos pasteurisering, kook en droog kan die groei van skadelike bakterieë vernietig of belemmer. Bymiddels soos emulgatoren behou die tekstuur van voedsel, soos om te voorkom dat grondboontjiebotter in vaste en vloeibare dele skei. Ander funksies van die verwerking sluit in die vertraging van die bederf van voedsel en die behoud van gewenste sensoriese eienskappe van voedsel (geur, tekstuur, aroma, voorkoms) en toenemende gemak by die voorbereiding van 'n volledige maaltyd.

Maar voedselverwerking het ook nadele. Afhangende van die verwerkingsgraad, kan baie voedingstowwe vernietig of verwyder word. Deur die buitenste lae vrugte, groente en volgraan af te skil, kan plantvoedingstowwe (fitochemikalieë) en vesel verwyder word. Deur voedsel te verhit of te droog, kan sekere vitamiene en minerale vernietig word. Alhoewel voedselvervaardigers sommige van die verlore voedingstowwe kan byvoeg, is dit onmoontlik om die voedsel in sy oorspronklike vorm te herskep.

As u besluit of 'n hoogs verwerkte voedsel in u dieet ingesluit moet word, kan dit nuttig wees om die voedingsinhoud en die langtermyn effek daarvan op die gesondheid te evalueer. 'N Ultraverwerkte voedsel wat 'n oneweredige hoë verhouding van kalorieë tot voedingstowwe bevat, kan as ongesond beskou word. Navorsing ondersteun byvoorbeeld 'n verband tussen 'n hoë inname van suikerversoete drankies en 'n verhoogde risiko vir vetsug, diabetes en hartsiektes. Maar sommige verwerkte voedsel wat voordelige voedingstowwe bevat, soos olyfolie of hawer, word gekoppel aan 'n laer dosis van hierdie chroniese siektes.

Dekodering van die bestanddeellys op 'n voedseletiket

  • Die bestanddele word in volgorde van hoeveelheid volgens gewig gelys. Dit beteken dat die voedselbestanddeel wat die meeste weeg, eers gelys word, en die bestanddeel wat die minste weeg, die laaste word. [5]
  • Sommige bestanddele soos suiker en sout kan onder ander name genoem word. Alternatiewe terme vir suiker is byvoorbeeld mieliesiroop, mieliesiroop met hoë fruktose, heuning, agave-nektar, rietsuiker, ingedampte rietsap, klappersuiker, dekstrose, moutstroop, melasse of turbinado-suiker. Ander terme vir natrium sluit in mononatriumglutamaat of dinatriumfosfaat.
  • As die voedsel hoogs verwerk is, kan dit verskeie toevoegings bevat, soos kunsmatige kleure, geure of preserveermiddels. Hulle bestanddeelname is miskien minder bekend. Sommige preserveermiddels bevorder die veiligheid van voedsel deur die groei van vorm en bakterieë te voorkom. Ander help voorkom dat bederf of "af" geure ontwikkel. Voorbeelde wat u op die etiket kan sien, sluit in:
    • Preserveermiddels- askorbiensuur, natriumbensoaat, kaliumsorbaat, tokoferole
    • Emulgatoren wat skeiding tussen vloeistowwe en vaste stowwe voorkom - sojalecithien, monoglyceriede
    • Verdikkers om tekstuur by te voeg - xantangom, pektien, karrageen, guargom
    • Kleure-kunsmatige FD & ampC geel nr. 6 of natuurlike beta-karoteen om geel kleure by te voeg

    Bestanddele wat wyd gebruik word in die vervaardiging van hoogs/ultra-verwerkte voedsel, soos versadigde vette, bygevoegde suiker en natrium, het 'n teken geword van 'n swak dieetkwaliteit as gevolg van hul uitwerking op hartsiektes, vetsug en hoë bloeddruk. [6,7] Na raming dra ultraverwerkte voedsel ongeveer 90% van die totale kalorieë wat uit bygevoegde suikers verkry word, by. [4]

    • In 2015 het die Wêreldgesondheidsorganisasie verwerkte vleis as kankerverwekkend vir mense gekategoriseer. Hulle het "verwerkte vleis" gedefinieer as vleis wat getransformeer is deur sout, verharding, fermentasie, rook of ander prosesse om geur te verbeter of bewaring te verbeter. Die verklaring is gemaak nadat 22 wetenskaplikes van die International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group meer as 800 studies oor die onderwerp geëvalueer het. Die bewyse oor verwerkte vleis was die sterkste vir kolorektale kanker, gevolg deur maagkanker. [8]
    • 'N Ontleding van die opvolgstudie van die verpleegstersgesondheidstudie en gesondheidswerkers het bevind dat 'n hoër inname van ultra-verwerkte voedsel soos verwerkte vleis en aartappelskyfies verband hou met gewigstoename oor 4 jaar. [9] Ander studies dui daarop dat hoe meer ultraverwerkte voedsel geëet word, hoe groter die risiko dat 'n dieet nie belangrike voedingstowwe bevat nie. 'N Evaluering van die inname van 9,317 Amerikaanse deelnemers aan 'n NHANES-kohort het bevind dat hoër inname van ultra-verwerkte voedsel verband hou met 'n groter verbruik van geraffineerde koolhidrate, bygevoegde suikers en versadigde vet. Terselfdertyd het die inname van vesel, sink, kalium, fosfor, magnesium, kalsium en vitamiene A, C, D en E afgeneem. [10]
    • 'N Ander waarnemingsstudie onder byna 20 000 Spaanse universiteitstudente in die Seguimiento Universiteit van Navarra-kohort het bevind dat 'n hoër verbruik (meer as 4 porsies per dag) van ultra-verwerkte voedsel gepaard gaan met 'n verhoogde risiko van dood van 62% weens enige oorsaak in vergelyking met laer verbruik (minder as 2 porsies per dag). Vir elke ekstra daaglikse porsie ultra-verwerkte voedsel was daar 'n 18% groter risiko vir dood. Op grond van hul bevindings het die navorsers kennis geneem van die belangrikheid van beleide wat die verhouding van ultra-verwerkte voedsel in die dieet beperk en die verbruik van onverwerkte of minimaal verwerkte voedsel bevorder om die volksgesondheid te verbeter. [11] Ander kohortstudies in Frankryk (NutriNet Santé) en die VSA (NHANES) het ook bevind dat die verbruik van ultra-verwerkte voedsel direk verband hou met hoë sterftes van alle oorsake. [12,13]
    • In 2019 het 'n gerandomiseerde gekontroleerde proef gekyk na die feit of ultra-verwerkte voedsel, soos gedefinieer onder die NOVA-klassifikasie, mense inderdaad meer kan laat eet. Tien mans en tien vroue is gerandomiseer om 14 dae lank 'n ultra-verwerkte of 'n onverwerkte dieet te ontvang, gevolg deur nog 14 dae van die alternatiewe dieet. Die dieet was relatief gelyk aan kalorieë, suiker, vet, vesel en ander voedingstowwe, en deelnemers mag soveel of so min eet as wat hulle wil. Die studie het bevind dat deelnemers ongeveer 500 kalorieë meer op die ultraverwerkte dieet geëet het en ook gewig opgetel het (ongeveer 2 pond). [14] Die meeste ekstra kalorieë kom van koolhidrate en vette, en die dieet het ook hul natriuminname verhoog. Toe die deelnemers verander na die onverwerkte dieet, het hulle minder kalorieë geëet en die gewig verloor. Volgens eetlusopnames het die diëte nie verskil in vlakke van honger, volheid en tevredenheid nie, alhoewel deelnemers geneig was om vinniger op die ultraverwerkte dieet te eet.

    Die uiteinde

    Voedselverwerking is 'n spektrum wat wissel van basiese tegnologie soos vries of maal, tot die byvoeging van bymiddels wat die stabiliteit van die rak bevorder of die smaaklikheid verhoog. As 'n algemene reël is die beklemtoning van onverwerkte of minimaal verwerkte voedsel in die daaglikse dieet optimaal. Dit gesê, die gebruik van verwerkte voedsel is die keuse van die verbruiker, en daar is voor- en nadele by elke tipe. Die voedingsfeitetiket en die lys bestanddele kan handige hulpmiddels wees om te besluit wanneer 'n verwerkte voedsel by die dieet ingesluit moet word. Daar is bewyse wat verband hou met sekere soorte voedselverwerking en swak gesondheidsuitkomste (veral voedsel met 'n hoë of ultraverwerkte effek). Hierdie assosiasie geld hoofsaaklik vir ultra-verwerkte voedsel wat bygevoegde suikers, oortollige natrium en ongesonde vette bevat.

    1. Weaver CM, Dwyer J, Fulgoni III VL, King JC, Leveille GA, MacDonald RS, Ordovas J, Schnakenberg D. Verwerkte voedsel: bydraes tot voeding. Die Amerikaanse tydskrif vir kliniese voeding. 2014 Apr 2399 (6): 1525-42.
    2. Monteiro CA. Voeding en gesondheid. Die probleem is nie voedsel of voedingstowwe nie, maar net verwerking. Voeding vir openbare gesondheid. 2009 Mei12 (5): 729-31.
    3. Monteiro CA, Cannon G, Moubarac JC, Levy RB, Louzada ML, Jaime PC. Die VN-dekade van voeding, die NOVA-voedselklassifikasie en die probleme met ultraverwerking. Voeding vir openbare gesondheid. 2018 Jan21 (1): 5-17.
    4. Steele EM, Baraldi LG, da Costa Louzada ML, Moubarac JC, Mozaffarian D, Monteiro CA. Ultraverwerkte voedsel en bygevoegde suikers in die Amerikaanse dieet: bewyse van 'n nasionaal verteenwoordigende deursnitstudie. BMJ oopmaak. 2016 16 Januarie (3): e009892.
    5. Amerikaanse Food and Drug Administration. Gids vir etikettering van voedsel: leiding vir die nywerheid. Januarie 2013.
    6. Tapsell LC, Neale EP, Satija A, Hu FB. Voedsel, voedingstowwe en dieetpatrone: onderlinge verbindings en implikasies vir dieetriglyne. Vordering in voeding. 2016 Mei 97 (3): 445-54.
    7. Poti JM, Braga B, Qin B. Ultra-verwerkte voedselinname en vetsug: wat is werklik belangrik vir gesondheid-verwerking of voedingsinhoud ?. Huidige vetsugverslae. 2017 16 Des (4): 420-31.
    8. Bouvard V, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, Grosse Y, El Ghissassi F, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Guha N, Mattock H, Straif K. Karsinogenisiteit van die verbruik van rooi en verwerkte vleis. Die Lancet Onkologie. 2015 Desember 116 (16): 1599-600.
    9. Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. Veranderinge in dieet en lewenstyl en langtermyn gewigstoename by mans en vroue. New England Journal of Medicine. 2011 Junie 23364 (25): 2392-404.
    10. Steele EM, Popkin BM, Swinburn B, Monteiro CA. Die aandeel van ultra-verwerkte voedsel en die algehele voedingskwaliteit van diëte in die VSA: bewyse van 'n nasionaal verteenwoordigende deursnitstudie. Bevolkingsgesondheidsmaatstawwe. 2017 Desember 15 (1): 6.
    11. Rico-Campà A, Martínez-González MA, Alvarez-Alvarez I, de Deus Mendonça R, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Gómez-Donoso C, Bes-Rastrollo M. Vereniging tussen verbruik van ultra-verwerkte voedsel en alle oorsake sterftes: SUN voornemende kohortstudie. BMJ. 2019 Mei 29365: l1949.
    12. Schnabel L, Kesse-Guyot E, Allès B, Touvier M, Srour B, Hercberg S, Buscail C, Julia C. Vereniging tussen ultraverwerkte voedselverbruik en risiko van sterftes onder middeljarige volwassenes in Frankryk. JAMA interne medisyne. 11 Februarie 2019.
    13. Kim H, Hu EA, Rebholz CM. Ultraverwerkte voedselinname en sterftes in die VSA: resultate van die derde nasionale gesondheids- en voedingsondersoekopname (NHANES III, 1988–1994). Voeding vir openbare gesondheid. 2019 21 Februarie: 1-9.
    14. Hall KD, Ayuketah A, Brychta R, Cai H, Cassimatis T, Chen KY, Chung ST, Costa E, Courville A, Darcey V, Fletcher LA. Ultra-verwerkte diëte veroorsaak 'n oormaat kalorie-inname en gewigstoename: 'n gerandomiseerde, gekontroleerde proefneming van voedsel-inname by die pasiënt. Selmetabolisme. 16 Mei 2019.

    Gebruiksvoorwaardes

    Die inhoud van hierdie webwerf is bedoel vir opvoedkundige doeleindes en is nie bedoel om persoonlike mediese advies te bied nie. U moet die advies van u dokter of 'n ander gekwalifiseerde gesondheidsorgverskaffer inwin oor enige vrae oor 'n mediese toestand. Moet nooit professionele mediese advies verontagsaam of vertraag om dit te soek nie as gevolg van iets wat u op hierdie webwerf gelees het. Die Voedingsbron beveel geen produkte aan of ondersteun dit nie.


    Bespreking

    Die toepassing van 'n nuwe voedselklassifikasie gebaseer op die omvang en doel van voedselverwerking, op data oor voedselaankope wat in die afgelope drie dekades in die metropolitaanse gebiede van Brasilië versamel is, toon aan dat die verbruik van onverwerkte of minimaal verwerkte voedsel (Groep 1) en van verwerkte voedsel Kulinêre bestanddele (Groep 2) word gereeld vervang deur die gebruik van ultra-verwerkte voedselprodukte wat klaar is om te eet of gereed is om te verhit (Groep 3). Dit het plaasgevind in beide laer- en hoërinkomstegroepe. In die mees onlangse opname, wat in 2002–3 gedoen is, verteenwoordig groep 3-voedsel meer as 'n kwart van die totale energie wat metropolitaanse Brasiliaanse huishoudings aangekoop het, en meer as 'n derde daarvan wat deur die boonste inkomste-kwintiel aangekoop is.

    Die huidige studie toon ook aan dat 'n hipotetiese maaltyd wat slegs met gewone Groep 3-items voorberei word, vergeleke met 'n maaltyd wat slegs met gewone Groep 1 en Groep 2-items berei word, 'n derde meer bygevoegde suiker, byna 'n kwart meer versadigde vet en natrium bevat , minder as die helfte van die veselinhoud en twee derdes hoër energiedigtheid. Die maaltyd wat slegs met Groep 3 -items berei word, oorskry verreweg die boonste perke wat aanbeveel word vir die byvoeging van suiker, natriuminname en energiedigtheid, dit is naby die boonste grens vir die inname van versadigde vet, en dit is duidelik onvoldoende in vesel (2, 3). Die maaltyd wat slegs met Groep 1 en Groep 2 -items berei word, oorskry in 'n laer mate die boonste grense vir bygevoegde suiker, natrium en energiedigtheid, en dit is voldoende in terme van versadigde vet en veselinname (2, 3).

    Beperkings

    Die huidige studie het beperkings. Dit oorweeg die beskikbaarheid van huishoudelike voedsel en nie dieet nie. Dit is nuttig, aangesien dit redelikerwys gesê kan word dat dit op diëte van toepassing is. Twee beperkings is dat vermorsde kos en ook voedsel wat buite die huis geëet word, nie in ag geneem word nie.

    Die feit dat voedselhoeveelhede afkomstig is van uitgawes en gemiddelde koste in die eerste opname en direk in die tweede en derde opnames beoordeel is, maak die geïdentifiseerde tydstendense meer betroubaar in die tweede periode (1995–6 tot 2002–3) as in die eerste periode. (1987–8 tot 1995–6). In elk geval is die toename in die aandeel van groep 3 -voedsel gedurende die twee periodes gesien.

    Met die gebruik van huishoudelike voedselbeskikbaarheidsdata, is 'n bron van foute ten opsigte van diëte dat sommige soorte voedsel, soos plantaardige olies (groep 2) wat na diepbraai weggegooi word, en enige vars en bederfbare voedsel (groep 1), moontlik meer vermors as ander. Laasgenoemde sal waarskynlik belangriker wees. Many if not most foods consumed outside the home, such as soft drinks and sweet and also savoury snacks, are Group 3 products. Taking into account the reduction in total purchased energy per person per day seen across the three surveys, which is likely to indicate a corresponding increase in consumption outside the home, it is practically certain that the replacement of Group 1 and Group 2 foods by Group 3 food products in Brazil has been substantially higher than we have estimated.

    Comparisons

    Household-level studies from economically developing economies also indicate increasing consumption of selected Group 3 food products. In Mexico, consumption of sweetened soft drinks more than doubled among adolescents between 1999 and 2006, and tripled for adult women ( Reference Barquera, Hernandez-Barrera and Tolentino 15 ) . An increase of Group 3 food products has also been reported in Santiago, Chile between 1988 and 1997, notably of ‘breakfast cereals’, pastries and baked goods, processed dairy products, beverages and juices, dressings and mayonnaise, and pre-cooked meals ( Reference Crovetto and Uauy 16 ) .

    In general, as more disposable income becomes available, the penetration of ultra-processed foods increases. Analysis of data collected by the market research organization Euromonitor shows that as national income increases, the share of retail sales of ultra-processed food products, such as ready meals and breakfast cereals, correspondingly increases, while the share of minimally processed foods, such as dried foods (mostly grains), and processed culinary ingredients, such as oils and fats, declines ( Reference Gehlhar and Regmi 4 ) .

    The Euromonitor data also show an explosive growth in the retail sales of ready meals and breakfast cereals, particularly in middle-income developing countries. In Brazil, between 1998 and 2003, the average annual growth rate for ready meals was 17·3 % and for cereal breakfasts was 8·9 %.

    The enormous growth potential for Group 3 food products in Brazil, and other lower-income countries, becomes evident when contrasted with their contribution to the food supplies of higher-income countries. For instance, breads, cakes, pastries, confectionery, biscuits, processed meats, cheeses and soft drinks, taken together, amounted to 45·3 % of the total energy purchased by families in the UK in 2008 ( 17 ) , a value twice as high as the 19·1 % for the same products in 2002–3 in Brazil. This dominance of Group 3 products in the diet is even more pronounced in the USA, where the five most commonly consumed foods are all Group 3 ultra-processed food products: ‘regular’ sugary soft drinks, cakes and pastries, burgers, pizza and potato chips ( Reference Block 18 ) .

    It is likely that the general increase in the consumption of these ultra-processed products in Brazil will have continued, given the continuous increases of purchasing power of all income groups after 2003 ( Reference Neri 19 ) . This will be testable when data from the new national household budget survey, conducted in 2008–9, become available.

    Human health significance

    What is the significance of the increased consumption of ultra-processed food products for health? Causal relationships between consumption of Group 3 food products and health have been indicated or established only for some products.

    Five systematic reviews have now concluded that there is an association between soft drink intake and increased energy intake, excess body weight and diabetes ( Reference Bachman, Baranowski and Nicklas 20 – 24 ) . Evidence on ‘fast’ foods and snacks and obesity points the same way, but so far is less conclusive ( 24 ) .

    A recent comprehensive report concludes that the evidence for a causal relationship between intake of processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing ( 24 ) . This is particularly significant given the small number of studies that separate out processed meats as a category distinct from fresh meat. It is often assumed that consumption of all meat is increasing, whereas the study presented in the current paper shows that, in Brazil at least, the only meat whose consumption is rising is processed meat. Studies on meat consumption need to separate trends for fresh and for processed meat ( Reference Popkin 25 ) .

    It is not yet possible to estimate or predict the impact of increased consumption of ultra-processed food products, taken all together, on human health. This is because as yet there are no studies relating ultra-processed foods as a group with health outcomes. It is high time that such studies were undertaken. These need not be complex they can simply involve re-examination of existing data. In the meantime, the known high energy density of food products in Group 3 and their negative overall nutrient profile, both confirmed by our exercise with ‘extreme’ food baskets, indicate it is safe to say that increased consumption of these ultra-processed products is increasing the risk and incidence of obesity and of other nutrition-related chronic diseases ( Reference Astrup, Dyerberg and Selleck 26 ) .

    Discussion on the effects of ultra-processed products on human health and the risk of disease almost always focuses on the nutrients in such products. As we have stated elsewhere ( Reference Monteiro 1 , Reference Monteiro 27 ) , while this approach is important it is narrow, and neglects or overlooks other factors likely to be at least as important as nutrient profiles.

    Many ultra-processed food products are accurately termed ‘fast’ foods or ‘convenience’ foods. Many have long or very long shelf-lives, often because they are relatively devoid of perishable nutrients, or are even practically imperishable, in contrast to all fresh foods. Ultra-processed foods are also typically sold ready-to-heat or ready-to-eat, in contrast to most fresh foods that need to be prepared and cooked. The problem is that the convenience and rapidity associated with these products favour patterns of consumption known to harm the mechanisms that regulate energy balance, which therefore leads to excess eating and obesity. Such unhealthy eating patterns include snacking instead of regular meals, eating while watching television and consuming a lot of energy in liquid form ( Reference De Graaf 28 – Reference Mattes 30 ) . These behaviours are all provoked and amplified by aggressive advertising and marketing of branded Group 3 products, many of which are produced by transnational and other very big manufacturers and caterers.

    Food and drink manufacturing, catering and allied industries concentrate their marketing investments on ‘value-added’ ultra-processed products, such as sugared breakfast cereals, burgers, sweet and savoury snacks, and soft drinks, and not on minimally processed foods and also not on oils, flours and sugar used in homes as culinary ingredients. Heavily marketed branded products are typically made up from the cheapest oils, starches and sugars available, whose price to the manufacturers is often further reduced by government subsidies. This, and the endless opportunities to formulate ‘new’ hyper-palatable Group 3 products using sophisticated combinations of cosmetic and other additives, explain why the industry concentrates its marketing investments on these products ( Reference Monteiro 1 ) .

    In modern societies, food accessibility and food advertisement are the key environmental cues which trigger automatic and uncontrollable responses leading to excess eating and obesity. The idea that eating and drinking behaviours are simply a matter of conscious choice that can be educated is fundamentally wrong ( Reference Cohen 31 ) .

    Wider significance

    Increased production and consumption of ultra-processed Group 3 products also can have negative social, cultural, environmental and other impacts. Thus, as the intensity of food processing increases, typically so also does the requirement for energy inputs, directly in the processing itself and indirectly in packaging and transportation ( Reference Beauman, Cannon and Elmadfa 32 , Reference Roberts 33 ) . Further, the replacement of meals prepared at home by uniform branded ready-to-heat and ready-to-eat dishes, snacks and soft drinks results in the weakening of traditional food cultures, the loss of culinary diversity and the decline of family life, among very many other adverse effects ( Reference Contreras Hernández and Gracia Arnáiz 34 ) .


    Food frequency questionnaire

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    Bielemann RM, Motta JV, Minten GC, Horta BL, Gigante DP. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and their impact on the diet of young adults. Rev Saude Publica. 201549:28.

    Cediel G, Reyes M, da Costa Louzada ML, Martinez Steele E, Monteiro CA, Corvalan C, et al. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the Chilean diet. Public Health Nutr. 20102017:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017001161.

    Cornwell B, Villamor E, Mora-Plazas M, Marin C, Monteiro CA, Baylin A. Processed and ultra-processed foods are associated with lower-quality nutrient profiles in children from Colombia. Public Health Nutr. 2017:1–6. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017000891.

    Setyowati D, Andarwulan N, Giriwono PE. Processed and ultraprocessed food consumption pattern in the Jakarta Individual Food Consumption Survey 2014. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 201727(4):1–15. https://doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.062017.01.

    Rischke R, Kimenju SC, Klasen S, Qaim M. Supermarkets and food consumption patterns: the case of small towns in Kenya. Food Policy. 201552:9–21.

    Monteiro CA, Moubarac JC, Levy RB, Canella DS, Louzada M, Cannon G. Household availability of ultra-processed foods and obesity in nineteen European countries. Public Health Nutr. 2017:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017001379.

    Julia C, Martinez L, Alles B, Touvier M, Hercberg S, Mejean C, et al. Contribution of ultra-processed foods in the diet of adults from the French NutriNet-Sante study. Public Health Nutr. 2017:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017001367.

    Solberg SL, Terragni L, Granheim SI. Ultra-processed food purchases in Norway: a quantitative study on a representative sample of food retailers. Public Health Nutr. 201619(11):1990–2001. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980015003523.

    Djupegot IL, Nenseth CB, Bere E, Bjornara HBT, Helland SH, Overby NC, et al. The association between time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents in Norway: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 201717(1):447. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4408-3.

    Juul F, Hemmingsson E. Trends in consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Sweden between 1960 and 2010. Public Health Nutr. 201518(17):3096–107. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980015000506.

    O'Halloran SA, Lacy KE, Grimes CA, Woods J, Campbell KJ, Nowson CA. A novel processed food classification system applied to Australian food composition databases. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2017 https://doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12445.

    Venn D, Banwell C, Dixon J. Australia’s evolving food practices: a risky mix of continuity and change. Public Health Nutr. 2016:1–10. https://doi.org/10.1017/S136898001600255X.

    Luiten CM, Steenhuis IH, Eyles H, Ni Mhurchu C, Waterlander WE. Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarkets. Public Health Nutr. 2015:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980015002177.

    Poti JM, Mendez MA, Ng SW, Popkin BM. Highly processed and ready-to-eat packaged food and beverage purchases differ by race/ethnicity among US households. J Nutr. 2016146(9):1722–30. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.116.230441.

    Martinez Steele E, Popkin BM, Swinburn B, Monteiro CA. The share of ultra-processed foods and the overall nutritional quality of diets in the US: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study. Popul Health Metrics. 201715(1):6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12963-017-0119-3.

    Moubarac JC, Batal M, Martins AP, Claro R, Levy RB, Cannon G, et al. Processed and ultra-processed food products: consumption trends in Canada from 1938 to 2011. Can J Diet Pract Res. 201475(1):15–21.

    Moubarac JC, Batal M, Louzada ML, Martinez Steele E, Monteiro CA. Consumption of ultra-processed foods predicts diet quality in Canada. Appetite. 2017108:512–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2016.11.006.

    • Adams J, White M. Characterisation of UK diets according to degree of food processing and associations with socio-demographics and obesity: cross-sectional analysis of UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–12). Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 201512:160. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-015-0317-y. This cross-sectional study found that higher consumption of processed/ultra-processed food among adults in the UK was not associated with BMI or the likelihood of being overweight/obese or being obese.

    Asfaw A. Does consumption of processed foods explain disparities in the body weight of individuals? The case of Guatemala. Health Econ. 201120(2):184–95. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.1579.

    • Canella DS, Levy RB, Martins AP, Claro RM, Moubarac JC, Baraldi LG, et al. Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008–2009). PLoS One. 20149(3):e92752. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092752. This cross-sectional study found that, in a nationally representative sample of Brazilians, the prevalence of obesity was 3.7 percentage points higher among children and adults living in household strata in the highest compared with lowest quartile of ultra-processed food purchases.

    •• Louzada ML, Baraldi LG, Steele EM, Martins AP, Canella DS, Moubarac JC, et al. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Brazilian adolescents and adults. Prev Med. 201581:9–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.07.018. This cross-sectional study was the first to assess the relationship between ultra-processed food consumption and obesity using dietary intake rather than food purchases. In a nationally representative sample, Brazilians in the highest quintile of ultra-processed food consumption had 0.94 kg/m 2 higher BMI and were 26% more likely to be obese compared with those in the lowest quintile.

    •• Mendonca RD, Pimenta AM, Gea A, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Lopes AC, et al. Ultraprocessed food consumption and risk of overweight and obesity: the University of Navarra Follow-Up (SUN) cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016104(5):1433–40. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.135004. This investigation is the first prospective cohort to examine the association between ultra-processed food consumption and incident overweight/obesity. Highly educated middle-aged Spanish adults in the highest quartile of ultra-processed food intake at baseline had a 26% higher risk of developing overweight/obesity over a mean of 9 years of follow-up than those in the lowest quartile.

    Tavares LF, Fonseca SC, Garcia Rosa ML, Yokoo EM. Relationship between ultra-processed foods and metabolic syndrome in adolescents from a Brazilian Family Doctor Program. Public Health Nutr. 201215(1):82–7. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011001571.

    •• Rauber F, Campagnolo PD, Hoffman DJ, Vitolo MR. Consumption of ultra-processed food products and its effects on children’s lipid profiles: a longitudinal study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 201525(1):116–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2014.08.001. This study is the first prospective investigation to examine the association between ultra-processed food intake and changes in lipid profiles. Higher ultra-processed food intake among Brazilian preschoolers was associated with greater increases in total and LDL cholesterol between ages 3–4 and 7–8 years.

    • Rinaldi AE, Gabriel GF, Moreto F, Corrente JE, KC ML, Burini RC. Dietary factors associated with metabolic syndrome and its components in overweight and obese Brazilian schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 20168(1):58. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-016-0178-9. This cross-sectional examination found that higher processed industrialized food intake was associated with higher fasting glucose, but was not associated with waist circumference, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or metabolic syndrome among school-aged children with overweight/obesity in Brazil.

    • Lavigne-Robichaud M, Moubarac JC, Lantagne-Lopez S, Johnson-Down L, Batal M, Laouan Sidi EA et al. Diet quality indices in relation to metabolic syndrome in an Indigenous Cree (Eeyouch) population in northern Quebec, Canada. Public Health Nutr. 2017:1–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1017/S136898001700115X. This cross-sectional study found that higher consumption of ultra-processed food was associated with increased likelihood of having metabolic syndrome among Eeyouch adults in Quebec, Canada.

    •• Mendonca RD, Lopes AC, Pimenta AM, Gea A, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Bes-Rastrollo M. Ultra-processed food consumption and the incidence of hypertension in a Mediterranean cohort: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Project. Am J Hypertens. 201730(4):358–66. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpw137. This paper presents the first prospective cohort study to evaluate the association between ultra-processed food consumption and risk of hypertension. Highly educated middle-aged Spanish adults in the highest tertile of ultra-processed food consumption had a 21% higher risk of developing hypertension over a mean of 9 years of follow-up compared with those in the lowest tertile.

    Perez-Escamilla R, Obbagy JE, Altman JM, Essery EV, McGrane MM, Wong YP, et al. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012112(5):671–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2012.01.020.

    Rouhani MH, Haghighatdoost F, Surkan PJ, Azadbakht L. Associations between dietary energy density and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutrition. 201632(10):1037–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.03.017.

    Hall KD. A review of the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity. Eur J Clin Nutr. 201771(3):323–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016.260.

    Schulte EM, Avena NM, Gearhardt AN. Which foods may be addictive? The roles of processing, fat content, and glycemic load. PLoS One. 201510(2):e0117959. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117959.

    Carter A, Hendrikse J, Lee N, Yucel M, Verdejo-Garcia A, Andrews Z, et al. The neurobiology of “food addiction” and its implications for obesity treatment and policy. Annu Rev Nutr. 201636:105–28. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-071715-050909.

    Steenhuis I, Poelman M. Portion size: latest developments and interventions. Curr Obes Rep. 20176(1):10–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-017-0239-x.

    Peter Herman C, Polivy J, Pliner P, Vartanian LR. Mechanisms underlying the portion-size effect. Physiol Behav. 2015144:129–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.03.025.

    Sadeghirad B, Duhaney T, Motaghipisheh S, Campbell NR, Johnston BC. Influence of unhealthy food and beverage marketing on children’s dietary intake and preference: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Obes Rev. 201617(10):945–59. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12445.

    Boyland EJ, Nolan S, Kelly B, Tudur-Smith C, Jones A, Halford JC, et al. Advertising as a cue to consume: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acute exposure to unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverage advertising on intake in children and adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016103(2):519–33. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.120022.

    Gearhardt AN, Davis C, Kuschner R, Brownell KD. The addiction potential of hyperpalatable foods. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 20114(3):140–5.

    Fardet A. Minimally processed foods are more satiating and less hyperglycemic than ultra-processed foods: a preliminary study with 98 ready-to-eat foods. Food Funct. 20167(5):2338–46. https://doi.org/10.1039/c6fo00107f.

    Viskaal-van Dongen M, Kok FJ, de Graaf C. Eating rate of commonly consumed foods promotes food and energy intake. Appetite. 201156(1):25–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2010.11.141.

    Robinson E, Almiron-Roig E, Rutters F, de Graaf C, Forde CG, Tudur Smith C, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effect of eating rate on energy intake and hunger. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014100(1):123–51. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.081745.

    Robinson E, Aveyard P, Daley A, Jolly K, Lewis A, Lycett D, et al. Eating attentively: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and awareness on eating. Am J Clin Nutr. 201397(4):728–42. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.045245.

    Monteiro C, Cannon G, Levy R, Moubarac J-C, Jaime P, Martins A, et al. NOVA the star shines bright. World Nutr. 20167(1–3):28–38.

    Mattei J, Malik V, Wedick NM, Hu FB, Spiegelman D, Willett WC, et al. Reducing the global burden of type 2 diabetes by improving the quality of staple foods: the Global Nutrition and Epidemiologic Transition Initiative. Glob Health. 201511:23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-015-0109-9.

    McClure ST, Appel LJ. Food processing and incident hypertension: causal relationship, confounding, or both? Am J Hypertens. 201730(4):348–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpw170.

    Eicher-Miller HA, Fulgoni VL 3rd, Keast DR. Contributions of processed foods to dietary intake in the US from 2003–2008: a report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council. J Nutr. 2012142(11):2065S–72S. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.164442.

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    Inleiding

    Increasing policy attention has focused on added sugars, including by the WHO,1 the UK National Health System,2 the Canadian Heart and Stroke Foundation,3 the American Heart Association (AHA)4 and the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (USDGAC).5

    These reports concluded that a high intake of added sugars increases the risk of weight gain,1 , 4 , 5 excess body weight5 and obesity3 , 5 type 2 diabetes mellitus3 , 5 higher serum triglycerides5 and high blood cholesterol3 higher blood pressure5 and hypertension5 stroke3 , 5 coronary heart disease3 , 5 cancer3 and dental caries.1 , 3 , 5 Moreover, foods higher in added sugars are often a source of empty calories with minimum essential nutrients or dietary fibre,6–8 which displace more nutrient-dense foods9 and lead, in turn, to simultaneously overfed and undernourished individuals.

    All reports recommended limiting intake of added sugars.1 , 3–5 In the USA, the USDGAC recommended limiting added sugars to no more than 10% of total calories. This is a challenge, as recent consumption of added sugars in the USA amounted to almost 15% of total calories in 2005–2010.10 , 11

    To design and implement effective measures to reduce added sugars, their dietary sources must be clearly identified. Added sugars can be consumed either as ingredients of dishes or drinks prepared from scratch by consumers or a cook, or as ingredients of food products manufactured by the food industry. According to market disappearance data from 2014, more than three-quarters of the sugar and high fructose corn syrup available for human consumption in the USA were used by the food industry.12 This suggests that food products manufactured by the industry could have an important role in the excess added sugars consumption in the USA. However, to assess this role, it is essential to consider the contribution of manufactured food products to both total energy intake and the energy intake from added sugars, and, more relevantly, to quantify the relationship between their consumption and the total dietary content of added sugars. To address these questions, we performed an investigation utilising the 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).


    INDUSTRIAL SOUPS

    Most commercial soup bases and sauces contain artificial meat-like flavors that mimic those we used to get from natural, gelatin-rich broth. These kinds of short cuts mean that consumers are shortchanged. When the homemade stocks were pushed out by the cheap substitutes, an important source of minerals disappeared from the American diet. The thickening effects of gelatin could be mimicked with emulsifiers, but, of course, the health benefits were lost. Gelatin is a very healthy thing to have in your diet. It helps you digest proteins properly and is supportive of digestive health overall.

    Research on gelatin and natural broths came to an end in the 1950s when food companies discovered how to induce maillard reactions–the process of creating flavor compounds by mixing reduced sugars and amino acids under increased temperatures–and produce meat-like flavors in the laboratory. In a General Foods Company report issued in 1947, chemists predicted that almost all natural flavors would soon be chemically synthesized. 15 Following the Second World War, American food companies discovered monosodium glutamate, a food ingredient the Japanese had invented in 1908 to enhance food flavors, including meat-like flavors. Humans actually have receptors on the tongue for glutamate—it is the protein in food that the human body recognizes as meat–but the glutamate in MSG has a different configuration, which cannot be assimilated properly by the body. Any protein can be hydrolyzed (broken down into its component amino acids) to produce a base containing MSG. When the industry learned how to synthesize the flavor of meat in the laboratory, using inexpensive proteins from grains and legumes, the door was opened to a flood of new products, including boullion cubes, dehydrated soup mixes, sauce mixes, TV dinners, and condiments with a meaty taste.

    The fast food industry could not exist without MSG and artificial meat flavors, which beguile the consumer into eating bland and tasteless food. The sauces in many commercially processed foods contain MSG, water, thickeners, emulsifiers and caramel coloring. Your tongue is tricked into thinking that you are consuming something nutritious, when in fact it is getting nothing at all except some very toxic substances. Even dressings, Worcestershire sauce, rice mixes, flavored tofu, and many meat products have MSG in them. Almost all canned soups and stews contain MSG, and the “hydrolyzed protein” bases often contain MSG in very large amounts.

    So-called homemade soups in most restaurants are usually made by mixing water with a powdered soup base made of hydrolyzed protein and artificial flavors, and then adding chopped vegetables and other ingredients. Even things like lobster bisque and fish sauces in most seafood restaurants are prepared using these powdered bases full of artificial flavors.

    The industry even thinks it is too costly to just use a little onion and garlic for flavoring–they use artificial garlic and onion flavors instead. It’s all profit based with no thought for the health of the consumer.

    Unfortunately, most of the processed vegetarian foods are loaded with these flavorings, as well. The list of ingredients in vegetarian hamburgers, hot dogs, bacon, baloney, etc., may include hydrolyzed protein and “natural” flavors, all sources of MSG. Soy foods are loaded with MSG.

    Food manufacturers get around the labeling requirements by putting MSG in the spice mixes if the mix is less than fifty percent MSG, they don’t have to indicate MSG on the label. You may have noticed that the phrase “No MSG” has actually disappeared. The industry doesn’t use it anymore because they found out that there was MSG in all the spice mixes even Bragg’s amino acids had to take “No MSG” off the label.


    Are They Really Healthy?

    Lean Cuisine products are better than a lot of lunch and dinners out there, like fast food, for example. When you compare a serving of Lean Cuisine Pepperoni Pizza to a slice of pepperoni pizza from Pizza Hut, you'll find that the frozen meal is the healthier option.

    The single serving of Lean Cuisine pizza (6 ounces or 170 grams) is 410 calories with 10 grams of fat, 3 grams of fiber, 21 grams of protein, 59 grams of carbohydrates and 870 milligrams of sodium.

    One slice of a large hand-tossed pepperoni pizza weighs 123 grams, making it slightly smaller than the Lean Cuisine. It contains 330 calories, 14 grams of fat, 15 grams of protein, 38 grams of carbohydrates and 990 milligrams of sodium.

    However, the majority of these meals fall between 250 and 300 calories which doesn't satisfy the recommended calorie intake for one meal. While there are vegetables, there needs to be more of them to qualify as a serving. Many of the meals are made with refined pasta, so that's why it's important to go beyond Lean Cuisine nutrition and look closely at the ingredient list before deciding which ones to purchase.

    A May 2019 small-scale study with 20 participants conducted by researchers at the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), was the first of its kind to study the effects of processed foods. They discovered people who eat ultra processed foods eat more calories and gained more weight compared to those who ate a minimally processed diet.

    If you're cutting back calories to lose weight, some of the meals provide enough calories to qualify as a meal. The refined ingredients and sodium are enough reason to avoid them when and where possible. Opt for whole foods for the best nutrition.


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