Skemerkelkresepte, spiritualieë en plaaslike kroeë

Peru noem Suid -Amerika se kookkunsbestemming

Peru noem Suid -Amerika se kookkunsbestemming


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Peru moet op u lys van plekke wees om te besoek voordat u sterf

Peru is bekend vir sy uiteenlopende kookkuns, wat baie van streek tot streek verskil.

Tussen die Wêreldbeker -toernooi die afgelope somer en die Olimpiese Spele in 2016, was daar 'n hoop gedruis oor alles wat Brasilië betref. Vergeet Brasilië, want kosliefhebbers behoort hul kaartjies na Peru te bespreek.

Peru is vernoem Suid -Amerika se voorste kulinêre bestemming die afgelope naweek by die World Travel Awards, gehou op Saterdag 9 Augustus in Quito, Ecuador. As u 'n bietjie meer wil oorreed om die kaartjie te bespreek: Dit is die derde agtereenvolgende jaar dat Peru die toekenning wen.

Peru is bekend daarvoor uiteenlopende kookkuns wat baie van streek tot streek verskil. Elke streek bied plaaslike inwoners en reisigers sy eie soort kombuis, wat perfek pas by die avontuurlustige en honger reisiger wat 'n bietjie van alles kan proe.

Al speel seekos 'n belangrike rol in Peruaanse kombuis, die land is ook die tuiste van 'n vleisliefde bevolking, spesifiek marmotvleis. As u nie so waaghalsig is nie, moenie bekommerd wees nie; U kan ook vleis-, vark- en hoendergeregte in Peru vind, saam met 'n hoop ander krammetjies wat in die Peruaanse dieet ingesluit is, waaronder quinoa, aartappels, muurbal, avokado, rissies en ander groente en vrugte uit die streek.

Peru sal nie net u eetlus versag met sy smaakvolle en uiteenlopende geregte nie, maar dit is 'n land vol geskiedenis en bied 'n landskap wat u 'n hele lewe lank kan verken.

Waarvoor wag jy?

Alexandra E. Petri is die reisredakteur by The Daily Meal. U kan haar volg op Twitter @writewayaround.


10 tradisionele geregte wat u in Peru moet probeer

In 2016 is Peru vir die vyfde agtereenvolgende jaar deur die World Travel Awards vir die vyfde agtereenvolgende jaar bekroon as "Wêreld se toonaangewende kookkuns". Dit was net 10 jaar gelede dat die gastronomiese oplewing van Peru begin het, en herontdek geregte wat 'n lang tradisie in die kombuise van Peruaanse gesinne gehad het. Alhoewel dit tans lyk asof 'n tweede gastronomiese oplewing van organiese en gesonde kos plaasvind, was elke Peruaanse gereg wat in restaurante regoor die wêreld aangebied word, gebaseer op 'n vroeëre en meer oorspronklike gereg. Lees hier meer oor die mees tradisionele Peruaanse geregte.


Ceviche

Hierdie gereg is waarskynlik een van die bekendste kosse in Peru. As die meeste mense aan Peruaanse kos dink, dink hulle dadelik aan ceviche. Ceviche, gemaak met rou vis gemarineer in limoensap, is 'n klassieke Peruaanse gereg.

Alhoewel baie mense beweer dat Lima die beste stad is om dit te probeer, omdat dit naby die see is, het Cusco sy eie weergawe van ceviche wat nie sal teleurstel nie. Aangesien daar geen oseaan naby is nie, is dit gemaak van rivierforel. Die gereg is pittig en verfrissend.

Lomo Saltado


Verreweg my gunsteling van al die tipiese kosse in Peru! Dit is die gemaklike gereg van elke Cusqueñan. Lomo saltado is 'n stewige porsie beesvleis, ui en tamatie wat in sojasous gebraai word en bedien word bo-op 'n bedding met warm patats saam met rys.

Hierdie gereg kan ook gemaak word met hoender (pollo saltado) of alpaca (alpaca saltada). Daar is ook baie vegetariese restaurante in Cusco wat 'n vleisvrye weergawe van lomo saltado bedien, dikwels gemaak met sojavleis of sampioene (champiñones) as plaasvervanger.

Cuy al Horno

Ja, nog 'n beroemde kos in Peru! Hoekom al.

Hoekom al is proefkonyn wat met kruie gevul is, gebak word en dan heel bedien word - kop en al.

Die eerste keer dat ek dit probeer het, was saam met my gasheer Manuel by die restaurant La Cusqueñita. Wanneer die cuy het by my tafel aangekom en my van my bord gesnoer, ek het net daarna gestaar en probeer om 'n beskaafde manier uit te vind om hierdie geroosterde knaagdier te eet.

'Grawe met u hande in,' het Manuel vir my gesê.

"Soos 'n barbaar?" Ek het gehuil.

'Begin met die agterpote,' het hy gesê. 'Dit is waar die beste vleis is.'

En so het ek 'ingegrawe' en die klein agterpote van afgryse afgeskeur. Toe ek eers die aanvanklike skok van sy voorkoms oorkom, het die cuy smaak eintlik lekker, maer en 'n bietjie sout, soos varkvleis.

Terwyl sommige dit miskien een van die tipiese kosse in Peru is, is hierdie gereg tradisioneel gereserveer vir spesiale geleenthede, soos verjaarsdae. Dit word egter gereeld op die spyskaarte in Cusco gelys omdat buitelanders dit graag probeer.

Rocoto Relleno


Hoe smaak Cuy?

Die meeste mense is dit eens dat cuy eintlik heerlik is en 'n bietjie soos hoender smaak. Dit is waarskynlik waarom dit so 'n gewilde gereg in Suid -Amerika is.

Volgens Eatperu.com het Cuy 'n dieper, vetter smaak as hoender, met 'n meer smaaklike smaak.

Stel u belang om self te probeer? Ons het twee regte outentieke resepte vir cuy: Cuy Al Horno en Cuy Chactado. Gaan en laat weet ons wat u dink!


Gewildste Peruaanse kosse

Cuy (proefkonyn)

'N Tipiese maaltyd cuy (proefkonyn) bedien met slaai en aartappels

Een van die meer unieke lekkernye in Peruaanse kos is Cuy, 'n gebakte of gebraaide marmot wat saam met aartappels bedien word.

Dit is nie 'n gereeld ete vir Peruane, maar word gereeld bedien op spesiale geleenthede soos vakansiedae en verjaarsdae.

Trouens, Peru is so lief vir cuy dat hulle selfs 'n nasionale vakansiedag het om die marmot te vier! Dit gebeur elke jaar op die tweede Vrydag van Oktober (skryf dit in u kalender!).

Ondanks die feit dat Peruane nie gereeld geëet word nie, hou baie restaurante dit as 'n vaste toebehore op hul spyskaarte om voordeel te trek uit die toestroming van toeriste wat die lekkerte wil probeer. Dit is maklik om cuy te vind as u ooit in Peru is.

Cuy as ete het sy oorsprong in die Andes -streek in Peru en bestaan ​​na berig word al meer as 5000 jaar!

Marsvinse is 'n inheemse dier en 'n maklike bron van proteïene vir die plaaslike bevolking.

Daar is twee hoofgeregte wat gewild is in Peru:

  • Hoekom al & ndash (soms ook Cuy al palo genoem) & ndash gebakte marmot, gekook oor 'n spit wat heel bedien word en met kruie gevul is
  • Cuy Chactado & ndash gebraaide marmot, wat gereeld onder klippe gedruk word voordat dit gebraai word

Voordat dit gekook word, word dit gereeld met sout en knoffel gedoop om die vel skerp te maak.

Cuy word dan bedien met aartappels, slaai, friet, rys, mielies, Salsa Criolla ('n rooi ui-lekkerny), of Salsa Huacatay ('n pittige, groen, kruie-gebaseerde sous).

Lomo Saltado

Lomo Saltado bestaan ​​uit geroosterde beesvleis, friet en rys.

Wat wonderlik is aan Lomo Saltado, is dat dit 'n viering is van die multi-kulturele kooktegnieke waaruit die Peruaanse kombuis bestaan.

Daar is duidelike invloede uit Asië, Suid -Amerika en die Westerse wêreld, wat hierdie gereg 'n ware smeltkroes van kulture maak.

Die gereg is baie gewild in Peru en word geëet deur jonk, oud, ryk en arm.

Lomo Saltado is 'n roerbak wat bestaan ​​uit gemarineerde beesvleis, uie, tamaties, sojasous, chili en rsquos, asyn, speserye, koriander en patat wat gewoonlik saam met rys bedien word.

Daar is baie variasies van Lomo Saltado wat u kan probeer, afhangende van waar u in Peru gaan. Maar biefstuk met friet, pepers en sojasous is die algemeenste en is die basis vir die meeste variasies.

U kan hierdie Lomo Saltado -resep volg as u dit self wil probeer.

Ceviche

Tradisionele Peruaanse ceviche en rou gemarineerde vis met cancha, uie en aartappels

Ceviche is die bekendste gereg wat in jou gedagtes opkom as jy van Peruaanse kos praat. Dit is baie 'n tradisionele stapelvoedsel van Peru.

Peruaanse Ceviche het baie variasies, maar bestaan ​​gewoonlik uit stukke rou gemarineerde wit vis wat in suurlemoensap of lemmetjiesap gesout is, gekruid met chili en gekruid met sout. Dit word dan bedien met gesnyde uie, koriander en soms tamatie.

Ceviche in tradisionele styl is ongeveer drie uur gemarineer. Moderne ceviche, wat in die sewentigerjare deur die Peruaanse sjef Dario Matsufuji geskep is, het gewoonlik 'n baie kort marineringstydperk.

Met die gepaste vis kan dit marineer in die tyd wat dit neem om die bestanddele te meng, voor te sit en die ceviche na die tafel te bring.

Tipiese sye vir Ceviche sluit in camote (romerige patat), cancha (droë geroosterde mieliepitte), groente, blaarslaai, tamales, avokado of weegbree.

Die gereg word koud bedien, wat die risiko van voedselvergiftiging inhou, daarom is dit belangrik dat die gereg vars bedien word.

Watter soort vis word gebruik om Ceviche te maak?

Peruane gebruik 'n verskeidenheid vis om Ceviche te maak, waarvan die algemeenste die volgende is:

Ander seekos wat gebruik word om ceviche te maak, kan garnale, sint -jakobssels, inkvis of seekat insluit. Alternatiewelik is daar 'n Fidjiaanse weergawe van ceviche wat in 'n klapper bedien word.

Causa Lime & ntildea

Causa lime & ntildea vertaal grofweg as 'die oorsaak van Lima' en verwys na die oorlog tussen Peru en Chili meer as 100 jaar gelede, waar daar gesê word dat die enigste bestanddeel wat oorgebly het aartappels was, en daarom was die uitvind van geregte om aartappels te gebruik & lsquofor die oorsaak & rsquo!

Tradisioneel word Causa lime & ntildea voorberei met behulp van die geel aartappel, tesame met suurlemoen, gekookte eier, suurlemoenpeper en olywe.

Met verloop van tyd was daar talle toevoegings en variasies, veral die avokado- en blaarslaai, maar in meer onlangse tye is vulsels soos tuna, hoender en seekos saam met mayonnaise bygevoeg.

Pachamanca

Pachamanca word gemaak met 'n verskeidenheid vleisbestanddele, gekook in 'n aardoond

Pachamanca is eintlik meer 'n kookmetode as 'n enkele gereg, maar dit het 'n groot kulturele relevansie in Peru. Dit word in alle streke gebruik, maar met baie verskillende variasies.

Die tradisionele Peruaanse pachamanca dateer uit die pre-Spaanse tyd, tydens die Inka-ryk, maar het sedertdien ontwikkel en versprei oor Peru.

Pachamanca beteken 'n oond en 'n oond en is 'n baktegniek wat warm stene gebruik om 'n reeks gemarineerde vleis soos cuy, hoender, lam, skaapvleis, vark en alpaca te kook.

U voeg dan 'n verskeidenheid groente by, soos aartappels, kassava, yuca, patats, limabone, mielies, tamale, humitas en hellip, die lys is eindeloos!

Pachamanca maak en gebruik:

Die tradisionele Peruaanse Pachamanca word gemaak deur warm gesteentes in 'n vuur te plaas om dit te verhit en dit dan in 'n gat in die grond te plaas om 'n oond van die aarde te skep.

Vleis word dan bedek met kruie en speserye, en dan soms in blare toegedraai of net op die warm klippe geplaas. Gelaai dikwels op klippe tussen die vleis om die hitte te versprei vir beter kook.

'N Verskeidenheid groente word ook ingesluit, soos aartappels, mielies, kassawe, limabone en natuurlik chili en rsquos. Aartappels gaan gewoonlik na onder, terwyl ligter groente na bo, of bo -op die warm klippe geplaas word.

Die vuur word dan bedek met gras, blare en aarde, en bedek vir 'n periode van 2 en 4 uur terwyl dit kook. Na 'n paar uur sal die kos klaar wees en die Pachamanca kan oopgemaak word.

Die resultaat is 'n heerlike rokerige geur met 'n wye verskeidenheid smaak om te proe, met al die bestanddele wat mekaar smaak.

Pachamanca word gewoonlik voorberei vir 'n groot groep mense, met 'n groot hoeveelheid voedsel, soms selfs hele diere.

Dit is 'n gewilde gereg vir gesinsbyeenkomste of feeste, en is baie gewild in alle streke van Peru.

As u self regtig in Pachamanca wil kom, is dit 'n fantastiese resep om te volg.

Tacu Tacu

Tacu Tacu is 'n patty wat bestaan ​​uit oorblywende bone en rys

Tacu Tacu is 'n heerlike, tradisionele Peruaanse ontbytgereg wat gedurende die koloniale tyd deur slawe uitgevind is. Hulle doel was om 'n stewige en vullende maaltyd te maak met slegs oorskiet.

Tacu Tacu is in wese 'n patty wat bestaan ​​uit fyngedrukte kanarieboontjies en rys, en soms ook uie en speserye, gebraai in 'n pan tot bros.

Dit kan op sy eie bedien word as 'n maaltyd of saam met 'n gebakte eier, steak, salsa criolla of selfs gebakte piesang.

Soos met die meeste Peruaanse geregte, is daar baie variasies van Tacu Tacu. Vleis of speserye word soms bygevoeg, afhangende van die beskikbaarheid en streek van Peru.

Aji de Gallina

Aji de gallina is hoender in 'n romerige okkerneutsous

Aji de gallina is 'n heerlike pittige geroomde hoenderstoofgereg wat vernoem is na die aji amarillo -soetrissies wat in die voorbereiding daarvan gebruik word.

Die gereg het 'n interessante geskiedenis, met sy oorsprong in die Romeinse en Arabiese kookkuns. Spesifiek 'n gereg genaamd Manjar Blanco wat Aji de Gallina sou word sodra dit deur die Peruanen aangeneem en ontwikkel is.

Gaartegnieke wat in Manjar Blanco gebruik is, is deur Franse sjefs wat tydens die Franse Revolusie hul werk verloor het, na Peru gebring. Die welgestelde gesinne vir wie hulle gewerk het, is doodgemaak of in die tronk gesit en het hulle na Peru gelei vir geleenthede.

Die resultaat is Aji de Gallina, 'n asemrowende kulturele infusie van Europese en Peruaanse tradisies en metodes.

Aji de Gallina is hoender in 'n romerige sous gemaak van gemaalde okkerneute, ui, knoffel, komyn en natuurlik aji amarillo chili pepers, bedien met rys.

Pollo a la brasa

Pollo a la brasa is gemarineerde hoender op 'n rooster, bedien met friet en aji -sous

Pollo a la brasa is 'n Peruaanse gereg wat veral gewild is in die VSA en Australië. Dit bestaan ​​uit geroosterde, gemarineerde hoender bedien met friet en aji -sous.

Die gereg is oorspronklik deur die hoërklas -Peruane geëet weens die koste en skaarsheid van hoender in die hele Peru. Vandag is dit egter baie goedkoper en kan dit in baie restaurante in Peru, Colombia en Brasilië gevind word.

Die hoender is 'n uiters eenvoudige gereg en word 8 uur lank gemarineer in sojasous, knoffel, lemmetjiesap, paprika, peper en paprika voordat dit op 'n houtvuur of steenkoolrooster gaargemaak word.

'N Sous word dan gemaak van óf die geel aji chili (aji amarillo) óf die groen aji chili (aji verde), wat aan die kant van die gereg geplaas word.

Tiradito

Tiradito is soortgelyk aan ceviche, aangesien die hoofbestanddeel rou vis is, maar dit is baie delikater en word bedien met 'n pittige marinade met tier en rsquosmelk.

Tiradito is nog 'n noemenswaardige Peruaanse gereg omdat dit beïnvloed word deur die Japannese kookkuns, en 'n gereg wat baie soortgelyk is aan sashimi, aangesien die vis baie dun gesny is. Dit word dan tipies versier met patats, gekookte mielies en bykomende bestanddele, soos sint -jakobsschelpe.

Anticuchos (Beef Heart Spies)

Anticuchos is vleishartspiesies wat oral in Peru voorkom, van straatkosstalletjies tot tipiese gesinshuise waar dit as 'n maaltyd met heerlike kante geëet word. Aji panca -sous maak die anticuchos so lekker, met 'n marinade so eg Peruaanse smaak!

Die aji panca -marinade skep aardse geure en anticuchos word tradisioneel ook bedien met 'n geel soetrissie -sous gemaak van skottelgoedpeper. Die eindresultaat is 'n pittige, pittige geur wat absoluut deur Peru bewonder word.

Papas a la Huancaina

Papas a la Huancaina is 'n gereg van gesnyde aartappels in 'n romerige, pittige kaassous. Om hierdie gereg so eg Peruaanse te maak, word Aji panca natuurlik saam met vars kaas, knoffel, lemmetjiesap, melk en soutkoekies gebruik. Die bestanddele gee Papas a la Huancaina sy kenmerkende heldergeel sous, wat dan bedien word met slaai en gekookte eiers.

Peruane eet gereeld Papas a la Huancaina as bykos vir 'n ander hoofmaaltyd, soos anticuchos, of as voorgereg. Dit is 'n bietjie pittige skop, maar dit is 'n baie warm, huislike maaltyd wat baie geliefd is in die hele Peru.

Rocoto Relleno

Rocoto Relleno is 'n wonderlike Peruaanse pittige peper, afkomstig uit Suid -Peru, maar word nou oral in die land geniet. Die aji -soetrissies is gevul met 'n mengsel van beesvleis, uie, knoffel en ander speserye. Queso -fresco word bo -oor bygevoeg en die rissies word in 'n sous van eier en melk gebak.

Die aji -rooi soetrissies is natuurlik rissiepepers, wat beteken dat hierdie gereg 'n ongelooflike pittige pons kry! Die bestanddele kalmeer egter die aanvanklike skop ietwat, en saam kombineer die geure 'n ongelooflike heerlike geur wat slegs uit Peru kon kom!


Peru het die kookkunsbestemming van Suid -Amerika genoem - Resepte

100 heerlike tradisionele resepte uit Peru

Beskrywing

Kook die gewaagde, unieke geure van Peru, 'n multikulturele kulinêre bestemming. deur voedselkritikus Eric Asimov beskryf as een van die belangrikste kombuis ter wêreld en 'n model van fusion -kookkuns.

The Big Peruaanse kookboek is 'n reis deur die uiteenlopende gastronomie van die multikulturele Suid -Amerikaanse land, van die Andes -pieke tot by die kusdorpe en tropiese oerwoude.

  • Tradisionele Ceviche (of & ldquoCebiche & rdquo)
  • Causa (gelaagde kapokaartappels)
  • Arroz Chaufa (visgeroerde rys)
  • Papa a la Huanca ína (Aartappels in kaassous)
  • Lomo Saltado (geroosterde gesnyde beesvleis met patat)
  • Aj í de Gallina (romerige hoender)
  • Anticuchos de Coraz ón (Geroosterde hartspies)
  • En meer!

Skyhorse, 9781510738416, 272 bls.

Publikasiedatum: 5 Februarie 2019

Oor die skrywer

Morena Cuadra is gebore in El Salvador, grootgemaak in Nicaragua, en aangeneem deur Peru. Sy is 'n opgeleide sjef en wynkenner en lei 'n kookskool in Lima en skryf 'n Peruaanse voedselblog Peru Delights. Sy is die mede -outeur van Detox Juicing. Cuadra woon in Leesburg, Virginia.

Morena Escard ó is 'n skrywer en 'n vegetariese huiskok uit Lima, Peru, met 'n fassinasie om holisties te eet en om elke gereg vegetariër, vegan en glutenvry te maak. Saam met haar ma, Morena Cuadra, skryf sy die Peruaanse kosblog Peru Delights. Sy is die mede -outeur van Detox Juicing. Escard ó is in New York geleë.


Peruaanse kombuis

Peruaanse kombuis weerspieël die plaaslike praktyke en bestanddele, insluitend invloede hoofsaaklik van die inheemse bevolking, insluitend die Inka's, en kombuise gebring deur immigrante uit Europa (Spaanse kombuis, Italiaanse kombuis, Duitse kombuis) Asië (Japannese kombuis en Chinese kombuis) en Afrika. Sonder die bekende bestanddele uit hul tuislande, het immigrante hul tradisionele kookkuns aangepas deur gebruik te maak van bestanddele wat in Peru beskikbaar is.

Die vier tradisionele krammetjies van die Peruaanse kombuis is koring, aartappels en ander knolle, Amaranthaceae (quinoa, kañiwa en kiwicha) en peulgewasse (boontjies en lupiene). Stapels wat deur die Spaanse gebring is, sluit in rys, koring en vleis (beesvleis, vark en hoender).

Baie tradisionele kosse - soos quinoa, kiwicha, chili pepers, en verskeie wortels en knolle - het die afgelope dekades in gewildheid toegeneem, wat 'n herlewing van belangstelling in inheemse Peruaanse kosse en kulinêre tegnieke weerspieël. Sjef Gaston Acurio het bekend geword vir die bewusmaking van plaaslike bestanddele. Die belangrikste bestanddeel in alle Peruaanse kookkuns is die aartappel, aangesien Peru die grootste verskeidenheid aartappels ter wêreld het.

Die Amerikaanse voedselkritikus Eric Asimov beskryf dit as een van die belangrikste kookkuns ter wêreld en as 'n voorbeeld van fusion -kookkuns, vanweë sy lang multikulturele geskiedenis. [1]

Peru word beskou as 'n belangrike sentrum vir die genetiese diversiteit van die wêreld se gewasse:

    , baie aartappelsoorte kom van die Andesgebergte. [2] [3] Meer as 99% van alle gekweekte aartappels wêreldwyd is afstammelinge van 'n enkele subspesie, naamlik Solanum tuberosum. [4] [5] Hierdie subspesie het ontwikkel tot duisende variëteite wat wissel volgens grootte, vorm, kleur en ander sensoriese eienskappe. [5]
    ("Indiese" rys), drie variëteite, 'n peulgewas inheems aan die Andes, soortgelyk aan die lupiene boontjie, 'n aartappelagtige knol, 'n aartappelagtige knol, 'n aartappelagtige knol, 'n groente met 'n komkommeragtige smaak chilipepers, insluitend ají amarillo en ají limón, rocoto chili, ají panca en ají mochero/limo - Peru het ongeveer 20 inheemse vrugte wat gebruik word om te kook of vars geëet te word

Die patat is inheems aan die Amerikas en is minstens 5 000 jaar gelede daar tuisgemaak. [6] Die veel laer molekulêre diversiteit wat in Peru en Ecuador aangetref word. Slegs twee patatsoorte is algemeen op die markte te koop, maar daar is meer variëteite regoor die land. Die een het 'n droë oranje vleis en 'n ligte bruin vel, en dit smaak soet. Die ander een het 'n pers vel, 'n wit en bruin binnekant en is net matig soet. Soms is 'n ander variëteit, gekenmerk deur klein knolle en donker vel, beskikbaar. Peru het ongeveer meer as 5000 aartappelsoorte, die grootste ter wêreld. Die twee mees algemene aartappels is 'n witvleis tipe en 'n duurder geelvleis tipe.

Onder die vrugte wat in die algemeen in die Andes -streek voorkom (Peru, Bolivia), is lucuma, camu camu, turksvy, cape -appelliefie, cocona, pacay (tegnies 'n peulgewas, maar as vrug gebruik), guanabana, draakvrugte, pepino, papaja, ciruela, mammee appel, piesang passievrugte, cherimoya, granadilla, moriche palmvrugte en tamarillo. Yacon, hoewel 'n ondergrondse knol, word ook as vrugte gebruik. Gewoonlik is nie een van die ander inheemse vrugte in die handel beskikbaar nie.

Uit Peru het die Spaanse verskeie kosse na Europa teruggebring wat vir baie mense regoor die wêreld stapelvoedsel sou word.

  • Aartappels: Aartappels is van Amerika af in Amerika bekendgestel. Hulle word in Europa as veevoer beskou totdat die Franse apteker Antoine-Augustin Parmentier geregte van die knolle by sy uitspattige bankette begin bedien het. Sy gaste was onmiddellik oortuig dat aartappels geskik is vir menslike gebruik. Die variëteite wat in Europa en die grootste deel van die wêreld gebruik word, is egter afkomstig van 'n subspesie wat inheems is aan die Peruaanse andes, naamlik Solanum tuberosum.
  • Bone: Verskeie variëteite van die gewone boontjie is inheems aan Latyns -Amerika, waaronder die limaboon.

Die variëteite chilipepers, aartappels, tamaties en mielies wat die Spaanse na Europa teruggebring het, was egter inheems aan Peru:

  • Rissies: Chili -rissies is inheems aan Amerika. Die variëteite wat die meeste oor die hele wêreld gebruik word, kom egter uit Mexiko en Sentraal -Amerika. Sweet Peppers kom oorspronklik van Mexiko en Sentraal -Amerika. Peruaanse Ají -soetrissies is feitlik onbekend buite die Andes -streek in Suid -Amerika.
  • Mielies: Mielies ("Indiese" mielies) kom van Meso -Amerika en Peru en die variëteite wat in Europa en die grootste deel van die wêreld gebruik word, kom uit Sentraal -Amerika. Die koring wat in Peru verbou word, is soet en het groot pitte. Dit word egter nie wyd buite Peru verbruik nie.
  • Tamaties: Die tamatie is inheems aan Peru. Dit word bewys deur die groot aantal variëteite wat in die streek beskikbaar is. Daarteenoor het Mesoamerica slegs twee variëteite wat tans in die handel beskikbaar is, naamlik die Common Globe en Plum Tomato.

Baie voedsel uit Spanje word nou beskou as Peruaanse krammetjies, insluitend koring, gars, hawer, rys, lensies, kekerertjies (garbanzo boontjies), bone, knoffel, kool, broccoli, blomkool, artisjokke, uie, komkommers, wortels, seldery, blaarslaai, eiervrug, wyn, asyn, olywe, beesvleis, vark, hoender, talle speserye (insluitend koljander, komyn, pietersielie, koriander (groen koljander), lourier, kruisement, tiemie, marjolein, borrie, naeltjies, kaneel, neutmuskaat, anys (venkel) , swartpeper en oregano), piesangs, kweper, appels, lemoene, lemmetjies, appelkose, perskes, pruime, kersies, spanspekke, vye, granate, heuning, witsuiker, amandels, okkerneute, kaas, hoender eiers, koeimelk, ens. Baie voedselplante wat in Europa gewild is, is egter na Peru ingevoer.

Gedurende die koloniale periode, en tot in die tyd van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, het die Peruaanse kombuis op Spaanse modelle gefokus en feitlik alles wat as inheems of Peruaanse beskou kan word, geïgnoreer. Tradisionele voedselplante, wat die inheemse bevolking aanhou eet het, word beskou as 'boerekos' wat vermy moet word. Hierdie koloniale houdings het lank geneem om te vervaag. Sedert die 1970's is daar 'n poging aangewend om hierdie inheemse voedselplante uit die onduidelikheid te bring.

Sommige plante wat deur antieke samelewings in Peru verbou is, is herontdek deur moderne Peruane en word noukeurig bestudeer deur wetenskaplikes. Vanweë die kenmerke van sy land en klimaat en die voedingskwaliteit van sy produkte, speel sommige Peruaanse plante 'n belangrike rol in toekomstige voeding. Voorbeelde hiervan is quinoa ('n uitstekende bron van essensiële aminosure) en kañiwa, wat soos graan lyk en kook, maar pseudospore is. Voedingkundiges bestudeer ook wortelgroente, soos maca, en graan soos kiwicha.

Sedert 1985 gebruik NASA sommige van hierdie kosse - quinoa, kiwicha en maca - vir ruimtevaardersmaaltye. Andiese bestanddele soos knolle en quinoa (kinwa in die inheemse taal Quechua) is ook deur lede van die Peruaanse ministerie van kultuur bevorder en het internasionale goedkeuring ontvang van bekendes soos Oprah Winfrey en NASA as 'n nuwe soort superkos. Terwyl Peruaanse staatsakteurs en bekende sjefs redeneer dat hierdie pogings ekonomiese geleenthede vir landelike boere geskep het en internasionale kulturele bewustheid opgebou het, het die kommersialisering van Andes -bestanddele die biodiversiteit van gewasse op inheemse lande verminder. 'N Toenemende wêreldwye vraag het daartoe gelei dat pryse gestyg het, sodat hierdie bestanddele vir die inheemse Peruane minder toeganklik word. [7]

Vir baie van die inwoners van Peru maak hierdie voedselvoorrade voldoende voeding, selfs al is die lewenstandaard swak. Deur baie van hierdie stapelvoedsel tydens die Spaanse oorheersing en republikeinse tydperke te laat vaar, het die voedingsvlakke verlaag.

Die Peruaanse kookkuns word dikwels pittig gemaak ají peper, 'n basiese bestanddeel. Peruaanse chilipepers is nie pittig nie, maar gee smaak en kleur aan geregte. Rys vergesel dikwels geregte in die Peruaanse kombuis, en die plaaslike bronne van voedsel en tradisies gee aanleiding tot ontelbare variëteite voorbereiding en geregte.

Peru is 'n land wat nie net 'n verskeidenheid etniese mengsels bevat sedert tye wat wissel van die Inka -ryk, die onderkoning en die Republiek nie, maar ook 'n klimaatsvariëteit van 28 [8] individuele klimate. Die vermenging van kulture en die verskillende klimate verskil van stad tot stad, so aardrykskunde, klimaat, kultuur en etniese mengsel bepaal die verskeidenheid plaaslike kookkuns.

Kusgebiede Redigeer

Die Stille Oseaan is die belangrikste bron van waterbronne vir Peru. Peru is een van die twee voorste produsente en uitvoerders ter wêreld van ongewoon proteïenmeel vir gebruik in veevoer/akwakultuur. Die rykdom aan visse en ander waterlewe is enorm, en baie oseaniese plant- en diersoorte kan slegs in Peru gevind word. So belangrik soos die Stille Oseaan vir die biodiversiteit van Peru, speel varswaterbiome soos die Amasonerivier en die Titicacameer ook 'n groot rol in die ekologiese samestelling van die land.

Elke kusstreek, anders as die flora- en fauna -bevolking, pas sy kookkuns aan volgens die beskikbare hulpbronne in sy waters.

Ceviche, 'n Suid -Amerikaanse gereg met gemarineerde rou vis of seekos, tipies versier met kruie en bedien as voorgereg, met baie variasies (suiwer, gekombineer of gemeng met vis en skulpvis), is 'n goeie voorbeeld van plaaslike aanpassing. Ceviche word in byna alle Peruaanse restaurante aan die kus aangetref, gewoonlik bedien met camote (patat). Dit word dikwels in Peru "cebiche" gespel en is die vlagskip van die kusgeregte, en een van die gewildste geregte onder Peruane. Dit bestaan ​​uit Andiese chilipepers, uie en suur aromatiese kalk, 'n variëteit wat deur die Spanjaarde gebring word. Dit is 'n pittige gereg en bestaan ​​meestal uit bytgrootte stukke witvis (soos corvina of wit seebaars), rou gemarineer in lemmetjiesap gemeng met chili. Ceviche word bedien met rou uie, gekookte patats (camote), geroosterde mielies (cancha).

Baie Peruane meen dat ceviche 'n afrodisiacum en kater genees is, laasgenoemde moontlik as gevolg van die feit dat dit tradisioneel saam met bier verteer word. Anders as ceviche uit Mexiko en Ecuador, bevat dit in Peru geen tamaties nie. Leche de tigre (tiermelk) is ook gewild, die Peruaanse gesamentlike naam vir die sap wat gemaak word uit die bestanddele van ceviche. Dit het 'n ligte pittige geur.

Chupe de camarones (garnale cioppino) is een van die gewildste geregte van die Peruaanse kusgereg. Dit word gemaak van 'n dik varswatergarnale (kreef) aftreksel, aartappels, melk en chilipeper. Dit word gereeld aangetref in Peruaanse restaurante wat spesialiseer in die Arequipaanse kombuis.

'N Immigrasie -sentrum en sentrums van die Spaanse onderkoning, Lima en Trujillo bevat unieke geregte wat gebring is uit die koms van die Spaanse veroweraars en die daaropvolgende golwe immigrante. Benewens internasionale immigrasie - waarvan 'n groot deel in Lima gebeur het - was daar sedert die tweede helfte van die 20ste eeu 'n sterk interne vloei van landelike gebiede na stede, veral na Lima. Dit het die kombuis van Lima sterk beïnvloed deur die inkorporering van die bestanddele en tegnieke van immigrante.

Kreoolse kombuis is die algemeenste in hierdie kosmopolitiese stad. Lima bied 'n wye verskeidenheid internasionale kookkuns aan, met Italiaans en Chinees (plaaslik bekend as chifa, 'n Chinese-Peruaanse samesmelting) wat die gewildste is. Japannese kos, veral sushi, is ook baie gewild, en baie kettingrestaurante uit die Verenigde State het ook 'n beduidende teenwoordigheid. Daar kan ook op verskeie plekke in die stad Lima verskeie Arabiese, Thaise, Mexikaanse, Franse, Engelse, Argentynse, Brasiliaanse en Indiese geregte gevind word.

Die bakkerye van die stad is baie gewild onder Peruane. Peruviërs staan ​​in die ry in byna elke bakkery en wag vir varsgebakte witbrood van 6 tot 9 uur en van 16 tot 18 uur. Die meerderheid Peruaans is geneig om saam met koffie of tee brood te eet vir ontbyt. Byna alle brood in Peru, met die uitsondering van stokbrood, word versterk met bygevoegde vette, soos varkvet. Volkoringbrood is uiters moeilik in die groot stede, maar meer algemeen (en dikwels goedkoper) in plattelandse dorpe. Baie bakkerye verkoop witbrood bestrooi met semels vir gesondheidsbewuste kliënte, aangesien volkoringmeel baie moeilik is om te vind. Selfs hierdie brood is egter dikwels sterk versterk met varkvet, koek of botter. Egte volkoringbrood word uit Europa ingevoer en in luukse kruidenierswinkels verkoop. 'N Paar kusstede se bakkerye produseer' bollos ', dit is brode wat in klip gebak is en houtoonde uit die Andes.

Anticuchos is brochette gemaak van beesvleishart gemarineer in verskillende Peruaanse speserye en gebraai, dikwels met 'n kant gekookte aartappel of mielies. Dit word gereeld deur straatverkopers verkoop, maar u kan dit in restaurante met kreoolse kos vind.

Tamales word ook gereeld deur straatverkopers verkoop: gekookte mielies met vleis of kaas en toegedraai in 'n piesangblaar. Hulle is soortgelyk aan humitas, wat bestaan ​​uit mielies gemeng met speserye, suiker, uie, gevul met varkvleis en olywe en uiteindelik toegedraai in die blare van koringskille. Tamales is 'n algemene ontbytkos, dikwels bedien met limoen en 'Salsa Criolla', 'n mengsel van dun gesnyde rou ui, ají -pepers, koriander en limoensap.

'N Ander gunstelinggereg wat in baie restaurante voorkom, is Papa a la huancaina (aartappels in die styl van Huancayo), 'n gereg wat uit gesnyde gekookte aartappels bestaan, bedien op 'n blaarslaai met 'n effens pittige kaassous met olywe. Die gereg is goedkoop om te maak en gebruik bestanddele wat maklik in Peru beskikbaar is, maar dit het komplekse geure en teksture, en is baie gewild onder sjefs in restaurante in Peru. Hierdie kombinasie van goedkoop om te maak, maar tog deur sjefs bevoordeel, het Papa a la Huancaina gehelp om gewild te word in alle klasse van die Peruaanse samelewing. [9] Die naam van die gereg is van Huancayo.

Tacu-tacu: Mixture of beans, rice and a fried egg, on top of breaded or pan-fried steak and an Salsa Criolla.

Papa rellena (stuffed potato): mashed potatoes stuffed with ground (minced) meat, eggs, olives and various spices and then deep fried.

Arroz tapado (covered rice): uses the same stuffing of papa rellena, but rather than used as a stuffing, it is accompanied by rice.

Pollo a la Brasa (Peruvian-flavored rotisserie or roaster chicken): is one of the most consumed foods in Peru. It is roasted chicken marinated in a marinade that includes various Peruvian ingredients, baked in hot ashes or on a spit-roast. The origins of the recipe for this dish date back to Lima, the capital of Peru, during the 1950s. Two Swiss citizens who were Peruvian residents, Roger Shuler and Franz Ulrich, invented and registered the patent (1950) for the machine to cook the chicken on the grill, a mechanical system of planetary rotation in that the chickens rotating on its axis and over a central axis, simultaneously. The dish comes with French fried potatoes, salad and various creams (Peruvian mayonnaise, ketchup, olive sauce, chimichurri and aji (chili) sauces of all kinds). There are many famous brands of "Pollo a la Brasa" restaurants in Peru and particularly in Lima, the most famous and popular being Hikari, Norky's, Roky's, Pardo's, and La Leña.

Sancochado is a hearty beef and vegetable broth that includes yuca (cassava) and potatoes.

A local staple is Lomo Saltado, also known as saltadito. Sliced beef (tenderloin or in Spanish "lomo") is stir-fried with, garlic, cumin powder, tomato and Spanish onion and fried-mixed with already fried French cut potatoes, coriander and parsley and accompanied with white rice. Salt and black pepper is also added to taste.

Lima has an abundance of Peruvian-style Chinese restaurants or "chifas" as they are known locally indeed, arroz chaufa or Chinese style rice is one of the frequently sampled dishes that has found its way into Peruvian cuisine.

Arroz con pollo, or rice with chicken, is enjoyed for its rich-flavored rice combined with chicken.

Chupe de pescado or fish cioppino is popular in Lima and along the coast.

Lima butter bean salad is a salad made with Lima butter beans (called pallares in Perú), cooked whole, cooled, and mixed with a mixture of onion, tomato, and green ají, marinated in lime juice, oil, salt, and vinegar. Lima butter beans (pallares) have been part of the Peruvian cuisine for at least 6,000 years.

Butifarras [es ca] , ook bekend as Jamon del Pais, is a sandwich with "Peruvian ham", sliced onions, sliced chili peppers, lime, salt, pepper, oil, in a white bread roll.

Causa, in its basic form, is a mashed yellow potato dumpling mixed with key lime, onion, chili and oil. Varieties can have avocado, chicken, tuna or even shellfish added to the mixture. Also, causa is popular in Lima, where it is distinguished by the name Causa Limeña. Causa is usually served cold with hard boiled eggs and olives.

Carapulcra is an appetizing stewed dish of pork and chicken, dried potatoes, red chilis, peanuts and cumin. The version from the Afro-Peruvian Ica region uses fresh potatoes.

Empanadas (meat turnovers) were introduced by the Spanish during the colonial period, and later modified, possibly due to lack of Spanish ingredients (olive oil, codfish, smoked paprika, etc.). In Peru, they are filled either with chicken, beef, or cheese. Olives, and sometimes hard boiled eggs and raisins gives them a unique taste.

Ají de gallina (chili chicken or Peruvian creamed chicken) consists of thin strips of chicken served with a creamy yellow and spicy sauce, made with ají amarillo (Peruvian yellow chilis), cheese, milk, bread. Occasionally walnuts are added on special occasions or at upscale restaurants due to its prohibitive cost in Peru. Traditionally the meat is from non-laying hens, but today almost exclusively made from more tender chickens.

Escabeche criollo (pickled fish): "Escabeche" when the word is used alone normally refers to fish escabeche. Other varieties can use duck or chicken. The escabeche dishes rely in the cooking on the heavy use of vinegar and onions together with other spices and chili.

Cau cau is a meal consisting of mondongo or tripe stew and accompanied by rice. There are a number of versions of Cau-Cau, as it is a style of cooking a choice protein. Two noteworthy styles are the creole style simply called Tripe Cau-Cau, and the Italian-Peruvian style. Creole style is made with strips of previously cooked tripe, seasoned with a mixture of sauteed onions, garlic, yellow aji, a pinch of turmeric, salt and pepper and cubes of boiled potatoes. The mixture is cooked together to blend the flavors and acquire consistency. It is then sprinkled with mint. Some add vinegar for added flavor before serving. The other common version is the Italian-Peruvian style. It consists of strips of precooked tripe sauteed with red onions, peeled tomatoes, tomato paste and dried mushrooms, usually Porcini. After the flavors combine, it is seasoned with parsley and mixed with fried potato just prior to serving. Some chefs add a few tablespoons of wine or pisco following the sauteeing.

Chicharrones is salted pork deep-fried in its own fat. There are at least two kinds of chicharrones: pork skins, a country style ribs that are first boiled, then rendered in their own fat until they brown into chicharrones. Other types of chicharrones including deep fried squid, and other seafoods. They can be served at any time of day, including breakfast.

One of the most popular dishes on the coast is called Lomo Saltado. It is a steak dish which is fried in a wok along with peppers, tomato, garlic, onions, coriander and soy sauce. It is accompanied by french fries and rice. This dish dates back to the 19th century and is a clear exponent of Chinese-Cantonese influence on local cuisine. It is a relatively recent dish because cow meat used to be very expensive. It was not until beef was mass-produced that it became widely available and used in local cuisine.

The cuisine of the northern coast offers a difference in style from the central and southern varieties. This is not only due to the coastal native Indian influence (less Andean), the Spanish influence, and the African but also to the warmer coastal seas, hotter climate and immense geographical latitude variety.

The widely different climates between Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca and San Martin contributes to the variety of dishes in these areas.

Seco de Cabrito (goat stew, often substituted by lamb, chicken, or beef) is made in a pot after marinating in chicha de jora (corn beer) and spices including cilantro and garlic. This dish is most popular in the northern coast especially in Cajamarca and Lambayeque.

Seco de Chavelo (typically from Catacaos - Piura) is a type of seco that is made of cecina stewed and dried meat that has been clotted and dried along with bananas, yuca, aji panca (Capsicum chinense) and Clarito (from Chicha de Jora the Piurano style).

Cebiche de Conchas Negras (ceviche with black shells) is a dish of Piura and Tumbes is also popular along the southern coast of Ecuador due to Peruvian influence. In this version of ceviche, the seafood used in the dish should be black clams accompanied by toasted corn.

Andes Edit

In the valleys and plains of the Andes, the diet is still a traditional one based on corn (maíz), potatoes, and an assortment of tubers. Meat comes from indigenous animals like alpacas and guinea pigs, but also from imported livestock like sheep, cattle and swine.

As with many rural cultures, most of the more elaborate dishes were reserved for festivities, while daily meals were simple affairs. Nowadays, festive dishes are consumed every day by urban dwellers, while rural diets tend to be light on meat and heavy on lahua gruel.

The pachamanca is a distinctive Peruvian dish. Cooked all over the Andean region of Peru, it is made from a variety of meats (including pork and beef), herbs and a variety of vegetables that are slowly cooked underground on a bed of heated stones. Because of its tedious preparation it is normally only made for celebrations or festivals in the Andes, though recent years have seen the appearance of many "campestre" restaurants in rural areas outside Lima, such as in Cieneguilla. [10]

Andean cooking's main freshwater fish is the trout, raised in fisheries in the region.

Cuy chactado: A dish more popular in the highlands is this meal of fried guinea pig. Often the indigenous women of the Peruvian Andes will raise the guinea pigs in their huts. Besides the use of guinea pigs as separate meals, they are often cooked in a Pachamanca with other meats and vegetables.

Olluquito con charqui is another traditional Andean dish. Olluco is a yellowish tuber (Ullucus tuberosus) domesticated by pre-Inca populations, and is visually similar to colorful small Andean potatoes, but with a distinct crunchy texture when cooked. Charqui is the technique employed in the Andean highlands to cure meat by salting, then dehydration (the word "jerky" in English is derived from this Andean (Quechuan) word). The dish is a stew of finely diced ollucos with charqui pieces (traditionally alpaca, or less frequently llama meat, though today it is also very commonly made from sheep), served with white rice.

Rocoto relleno: Arequipa dish made from stuffed rocoto chilis. Rocotos are one of the very hot (spicy) chilis of Peru. In this dish they are stuffed with spiced beef or pork, onions, olives, and egg white, then cooked in the oven with potatoes covered with cheese and milk.

Tocosh of Togosh is a traditional Quechua food prepared from fermented potato pulp.

Puka Pikanti: Ayacucho dish made from white potatoes, beets, yellow chili pepper, mint, and peanuts.

In Peruvian restaurants, steak is commonly served with rice rather than fries.

Amazon Edit

Naturally, Amazonian cuisine is made using the products local to the Amazon rainforest. Although many animal species are hunted for food in the biologically diverse jungle, standouts are the paiche (one of the world's largest freshwater fish), prepared in variety of dishes many other types of fish like gamitana, sabalo (Salminus hilarii, see Salminus), tucunare, boquichico, palometa, bagre, and many others including the piranha, that are prepared in variety of dishes such as "timbuche" (soup) or "patarashca" (grilled in vegetables) many types of turtles like the motelo (land turtle), and the charapa and taricaya (river turtles). Hunting turtles is prohibited in Peru, therefore turtle-based dishes are scarce and expensive and not sold à la carte in restaurants. Other animals include the majas, the sajino, the agouti and jungle mammals, which are called collectively "carne de monte". [11] The Black Caiman is also considered a delicacy but its hunt is forbidden under Peruvian law.

Among the fruits of Peru's jungle is the camu camu, which contains 40 times more vitamin C than the kiwifruit. Non-native fruits such as mango and pineapple and star apple are also in abundance, as well as other jungle fruits like, mammee apple, cherimoya, guanabana, taperiva, copoazu, dry fruits like the aguaje and the hungurahui.

Juane is rice seasoned with turmeric, and chicken wrapped with bijao leaves.

Chapo is a beverage made with sweet plantain.

Chalona of Charqui is a cured dried meat originally obtained from alpaca. It is also eaten in Bolivia, and was eaten by the Indians in the coast and highlands of Peru before the arrival of the Spanish. Today lamb is often substituted for alpaca meat. It is used as an ingredient in a variety of dishes of the Puno region, Cusco, and Arequipa. It is prepared using recently cured lamb, in which furrows are made with a knife so the salt can penetrate. Salt penetration is important, because it determines how long the cured meat lasts. The meat is left to dry in the sun and cold nights for almost one month.

Chairo: A traditional soup of the Puno and Arequipa regions. It origins have been traced to the Collan Indians who live in the Andes of Bolivia and southern Peru. The soup consists of black chuño, aji panca (red chili pepper), sweet potatoes, sheep tripe and chalona.

Ocopa: A dish with some similarities to Papas a la Huancaina. It consists of boiled and sliced yellow potatoes covered with a sauce of made of aji (chili pepper), the Peruvian herb Tagetes minuta, (called huacatay the herb gives it a vivid green color), ground peanuts, and fresh or white cheese, with sides of lettuce, boiled eggs and olives. At expensive restaurants walnuts are often added, but this is seldom done in Peruvian homes due to the prohibitive cost of walnuts in Peru. The name ocopa is also used to refer to the hot sauce by itself. [12] [13]

Copús is one of the best known dishes of Piura. Its ingredients are ripe fried bananas, camotes (sweet potatoes), and seasoned hen, turkey, goat, and mutton. The meat is cooked in a furnace under the ground this method is different from using a pachamanca since the furnace is covered with blankets and clay.

Yuca chupe or cassava soup is one of the variations in which the Peruvians enjoy cassava.

Currently, ostrich meat is being raised on farms in Arequipa, although its consumption is not widespread and limited to urban areas.

Sangrecita: A dish of cooked chicken blood seasoned with garlic, onion, chilli and herbs and commonly served with potatoes, sweet potatoes or cassava.

Crema de tarwi (tarwi soup): Tarwi is a vegetable native to the mountains of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru. In addition to its use in soup, tarwi is used in much of Peruvian cuisine, including sancochado. Fresh tarwi can be used in stews, purees, sauces, desserts and in a variation of cebiche. In some areas, locals call it chocho. Its cultivation has recently expanded to all the countries of the Andean region. In Peru, it is principally grown in the areas of Cajamarca, Ancash, the Mantaro Valley, Ayacucho, Cusco, and Puno.

Tarwi can also be found in beverages (such as papaya juice with tarwi flour). Tarwi has been shown to have a higher vegetable protein content than soy. In pre-Incan and Incan times, it was an important part of the mostly vegetarian diet of the region. It was consumed with small quantities of meat and dried fish, providing an abundant source of protein for the population. Tarwi seeds have been found in Nazca tombs and in representations of Tiahuanaco ceramics.

Chifa (from the Mandarin words 吃饭 "chi1 fan4", meaning "to eat rice") is the Peruvian term for Peruvian–Chinese food (or for a Peruvian-Chinese fusion restaurant). Because many Chinese ingredients are hard to find in Peru, the Chinese modified their cuisine and incorporated many Peruvian elements (mainly Spanish, native and African) into their cuisine. Even today, it is difficult to find authentic Chinese cuisine in Peru. This is mainly due to popularity of the hybridization of Chinese food, which is commonly called "Chifa," and a lack of many Chinese ingredients.

Alfajores: a dessert found in virtually all of Spain's former colonies. It is derived from the versions popular in Spain during the colonial period. The original Spanish recipes, however, have been modified because the original ingredients are expensive in Peru (almonds, honey) or even unobtainable (hazelnuts, lemon rind, coriander seed, etc.). The basic recipe uses a base mix of flour, margarine, and powdered sugar, which is oven-baked. Alfajores consist of two or more layers of this baked pastry, and is usually filled with manjar blanco (a caramel-colored, sweet, creamy filling made with milk and sugar)

Turrones (or nougat) is another originally Spanish dessert. The original Spanish recipe, which contained ingredients that were rare or expensive in Peru (such as almonds, rose water, orange blossom water, honey) were modified in a variety of ways. One common variety found in Lima is Turrón de Doña Pepa, an anise and honey nougat that is traditionally prepared for the Señor de los Milagros (or Lord of Miracles) religious procession, during October.

Almost exclusive to the Andes region is the fruit known as lúcuma. Lúcuma juice, ice cream, and corresponding lúcuma shakes are very popular throughout Peru. Lúcuma ice cream can normally only be found in large US cities (typically in Peruvian restaurants). One popular brand of ice cream in Peru is D'Onofrio, which is owned by Nestlé.

Arroz con leche (rice pudding): Another dessert originally from Spain that can be found in various varieties throughout Latin America. Arroz con leche is one of the more common desserts found in homes and restaurants of modern-day Peru. It consists primarily of cooked rice, cinnamon/nutmeg, raisins, and milk. Rice pudding never has lemon rind as is traditional in the Spanish version. Arroz con leche is usually eaten with Peruvian Mazamorra (jelly-like clove-flavored dessert). [ aanhaling nodig ]

Helados (ice cream): The most common ice cream flavors found in Peru are lucuma, chocolate, vanilla and strawberry. Some more exotic flavors such as camu camu, guaraná and prickly pear can occasionally be found. For other commonly available flavors, however, one needs to purchase imported ice-cream as many of the ingredients are not available in Peru. Peru is one of few countries in the world where the third most popular ice-cream (after vanilla and chocolate) is not strawberry, it is in fact the "nutty" flavored, orange colored lúcuma, which is an exotic fruit grown in quantity only in Peru, and only in recent years being exported in very limited quantities as an exotic flavor (for ice cream and savory sauces) to the US, and available in Europe essentially in food shows.

Mazamorra morada: Is a jelly-like clove-flavored dessert. It takes on the color of one of its main ingredients: purple maize. A variety of purple corn (maíz morado) that only grows in Peru adds color to the water it's boiled in, along with cinnamon cloves. When the water cools, chopped fruit, key lime and sugar are added. The mixture is served as a beverage called "chicha morada".

Picarones: a sweet, ring-shaped fritter with a pumpkin base often served with a molasses syrup. Picarones were created during the colonial period to replace the Spanish dessert Buñuelos, as buñuelos were too expensive to make (They had an egg custard filling) and some ingredients were unavailable (lemon rinds). Peruvian Picarones are made of squash or pumpkin dough and sweetened with chancaca, raw cane sugar melted into a syrup.

Tejas: another modified Spanish dessert. The original Spanish version contained ingredients that were prohibitively expensive in Peru, such as almonds. The Peruvian version of this candy is filled with manjar blanco and coated with a fondant-like shell. Some are also made with a chocolate shell (chocoteja).

King Kong: is made of cookies (made from flour, butter, eggs and milk), filled with milk candy, some pineapple sweet and in some cases peanuts, with cookies within its layers. It is sold in one-half and one kilogram sizes. It is known as part of the culture of Lambayeque Region.

Suspiro a la Limeña: Is another Spanish-influenced dessert that uses dulce de leche, which derives from the Spanish Blancmange. The bottom layer is made of dulce de leche enriched with egg yolks. The top layer consists of meringue made with port wine. This classic criollo dessert is said to have been named by the famous Peruvian poet and author José Gálvez whose wife doña Amparo Ayarez was famous for her cooking. When asked what inspired the name, he reportedly replied, "Because it is soft and sweet, like the sigh of a woman." In this case, it would be a woman from Lima, a Limeña.

Panetón: is a type of sweet bread with dried fruit. It is usually served for breakfast around Christmas with a cup of hot chocolate. They used to come in big boxes only with huge panetóns inside but now they also sell personal portions. Chocotón is variety of panetón that replaces the fruit with chocolate bits. The bread is very light and sweet. Because Christmas is the hottest time of year, people often replace the hot chocolate with coffee or a drink that's served cold.


Essential Peruvian Food: 10 Must-Eat Dishes to Seek Out

My first encounter with comida Peruana was over 20 years ago, thanks to my wife's Peruvian family. Their cooking was a study in juxtaposition: hot and cold, acidic and starchy, robust and delicate. That's because Peruvian food is all about spices and big flavors, some clean and crisp, others deep and heavy. Every sip of a pisco sour tamed the citrus and chile assault of a ceviche, the fish so fresh it almost crunched between my teeth.

When most of us think of Peru, we think of the ancient ruins and high mountain vistas. Those thoughts may be accompanied by a distant pan flute whistling over the Andes, and if we've been primed on the food, the conversation usually starts with the country's mind boggling variety of potatoes.

But culinarily speaking, Peru is the Hope Diamond of Latin America, home to dishes and flavors you won't find anywhere else. While this is hardly a secret—there are more Peruvian restaurants outside Peru than ever before—it's one we don't give enough credit. Few places on earth offer such a variety of indigenous ingredients, let alone a jumble of flavors and techniques from Europe, Africa, and East Asia. Rather than remain culturally segregated, these foreign additions have blended seamlessly with ancient Peruvian cuisine into something utterly unique.

A Peruvian Primer

Peruvian cuisine has only recently exploded onto the international culinary stage, but Peruvians have always been crazy about their nation's culinary heritage, and they steadfastly cling to the traditional, multi-culti flavors of home —pit-roasted feasts and all, even in the face of modern gastronomic innovation. A range of climates, from high altitude to low, offer an impressive diversity of produce. Yes, that means potatoes—over 3800 kinds—but also a variety of corn and other grains, to say nothing of the country's native aji chilies that are often puréed into sauces.

So much of what is now traditional Peruvian cooking was inspired by cultures oceans away. These foreign influences date back to the Spanish conquest of Incan king Atahualpa in the 1500s. Colonists brought European stews, sauces, and baked casseroles. Later, in the 19th century, immigrant workers from Guangdong Province brought their woks and stir fries, and Peruvians today love to eat chifa, a fusion of local ingredients cooked with Chinese recipes and technique. It's Chinese food with Peruvian influences—or maybe the other way around.

Like food everywhere today, there is a new style of Peruvian cuisine emerging—so-called nueva comida—forged by Lima's leading chefs like Gaston Acurio and Pedro Miguel Schiaffino. "It's very ingredient-driven," explains New York chef Eric Ramirez of the soon-to-open Llama Inn and formerly of Raymi Peruvian Kitchen and Pisco Bar. "With young chefs digging deep to find more exotic ingredients, the possibilities are endless." So the evolution of the nation's food continues, into territories of modernist cooking that's simultaneously old and new.

But for now, here's a quick tour of just some of the classic edible jewels Peru has to offer. Consider it the checklist for your next trip.

Ceviche

Peru's national dish, and an immediate obsession for nearly all who try it. Though other countries may claim their own variations with shrimp, octopus, scallops, tomatoes, and even tostada chips, Peru started this cold-"cooked" fish craze with only five simple ingredients: sea bass (corvina) marinated for just minutes in lime juice, onion, salt and, of course, hot chiles (aji). The tenderness of super-fresh fish is heightened by crisp onion, and sides of starchy boiled corn (choclo) and creamy sweet potato (camote) to balance out the texture of the dish. Dry-roasted corn kernels (cancha) sprinkled around add a pleasing crunch.

The leftover marinade—known as leche de tigre (tiger's milk)—is a briny, fiery elixir often tossed back from a shot glass or spiked with Pisco, either at the table or the next morning as hair of the dog. (In the latter case it's then referred to as leche de pantera, or panther's milk). Tiradito is a local variation of classic ceviche with a Japanese sushi-style twist of slicing the fish into thin strips, then adding puréed aji amarillo, soy sauce, and mirin to the marinade.

Lomo Saltado (Stir Fried Beef)

Almost as popular as ceviche, this chifa dish represents a fusion of Chinese stir frying and classic Peruvian ingredients. Juicy strips of soy-marinated beef (or alpaca), onions, tomatoes, aji chilies, and other spices are stir-fried until the beef is just cooked and the tomatoes and onions start to form a robust, meaty gravy. It's then served with two starches, a happy mix of East and West: a mound of rice and french fries (often tossed with the meat). The crowd-pleasing dish is found nearly everywhere across Peru, and is equally popular in Peruvian restaurants abroad.

Aji de Gallina (Creamy Chicken)

Shredded chicken bathes in a thick sauce made with cream, ground walnuts, cheese, and aji amarillo. The sauce is mild but piquent, the aji's fruity, moderately hot bite softened by the nutty, creamy sauce to a comfortable warmth. The dish reflects Peru's love of sauces thickened with chilies, cheese, cream, or even bread, drenched over and often cooked with meats and vegetables. Here the sauce is mixed with the poultry and served over rice with boiled potatoes and black olives, making for a rich, bright yellow chowder that glistens on the plates of restaurants and households throughout Peru.

Papas a la Huancaina (Potatoes in Spicy Cheese Sauce)

In another instance of "meat or starch covered in creamy sauce," sliced yellow potatoes are drenched in a purée of queso fresco, aji amarillo, garlic, evaporated milk, lime juice and—you guessed it—saltine crackers. It's not a looker: a yellow sauce over yellow potatoes topped with yellow-yolked hard boiled eggs. But don't be deceived this homely sauce packs a complex, slow-building burn, at once brightened by the queso fresco, lime, and salty cracker, and tamed by the earthy potato and cooling egg.

Usually served as a side dish to a meal, it's also a common appetiser, with tiny round purple potatoes boiled whole, enveloped by sauce and garnished with olives, eggs, and, yes, more crackers. Originating in the mountainous city of Huancayo, it's now an almost everyday staple throughout Peru.

Cuy (Guinea Pig)

One of the Andean region's most popular sources of meat (the other being alpaca), this guinea-pig-as-food strikes fear in the hearts of Westerners who think of it more as a pet than a meal. But consider tender, smoky dark meat (amper like poultry!) beneath a glistening golden veneer of shatteringly crisp skin, and you can begin to grasp the appeal. Or think of it as a single-serving suckling pig.

The traditional recipe calls for stuffing the whole animal with local herbs, then roasting it over an open wood fire and serving it with potatoes. When served this way it tastes best with a dip of aji sauce and eaten by hand like fried chicken. But more refined restaurant-ready recipes, which may involve deep-frying or braising, are now regularly enjoyed from Cusco all the way to Lima.

Causa (Potato Casserole)

This ubiquitous Quechan dish has taken on countless European-style variations, often served as a cake roll, terrine, casserole, or in colorful individual servings. Whatever the presentation, it starts with meaty mashed yellow Peruvian potatoes blended with lime, oil and spicy aji amarillo sauce. Shredded tuna, salmon, or chicken are mixed with mayo, followed by layers of avocado, hardboiled eggs, and olives. That surface is topped again with more potato mix, and so on, making as many lasagna-like layers as one dares. This bright, barely-spicy dish is served cold as a salad course or side dish.

Rocoto Relleno (Stuffed Spicy Peppers)

Red aji rocoto chilies are stuffed with a cooked mix of ground beef, onions, garlic, olives, raisins, herbs, and spices, then topped with queso fresco and baked in an egg-and-milk sauce. Fair warning: despite its scarlet good looks, this dish is not the stuffed bell pepper you're used to—the rocoto is a little larger than a plum with a bright, fruity, tropical berry essence and almost twice the heat of an aji amarillo (or in gringo terms, about ten times hotter than an average jalapeño). So that first bite will wake you up. But the chili's initial burn is quickly tempered by the sweet and savory filling inside, and the melted queso fresco and eggy cream sauce in which it all cooks.

The rocoto chili originated in the southern region of Arequipa, and while it's now ubiquitous throughout the country, it's still hard to find beyond Peru's borders, which makes rocoto relleno a dish that homesick Peruvians pine for when abroad.

Anticuchos de Corazón (Grilled Heart)

Don't let "heart" put you off. The heart is a muscle, after all, leaner than filet mignon, bolder in flavor than a ribeye, and delicious when licked by open flames. Typically cut into one-to-two-inch cubes, the crimson heart (alpaca or beef) is marinated in vinegar, cumin, ají, and garlic and grilled over charcoal to a medium rare with slightly singed edges.

Those cubes are often served on skewers with sliced onion or potato, and drizzled with lime, which makes them popular appetizers and even more popular street food throughout the country. Today, cooks make anticuchos out of any cut of beef, and even chicken, but nothing beats the original cardiovascular version.

Arroz con Pato (Rice With Duck)

This seemingly simple Spanish Criollo recipe is a signature dish in Peru. Rice is cooked in cilantro paste, herbs, and dark beer, giving a deep, earthy flavor to the vegetal grain. A roasted thigh and leg or—if lucky—crisp-seared duck confit is added on top of a mound of the green rice. The dish is so popular, it's found on nearly every Peruvian family table as well as at the finest restaurants in Lima, and like much of Peruvian cooking, it's been adapted into countless variations of rice mixture, texture and duck parts—and even with chicken or other poultry.

Pollo a la Brasa (Roasted Chicken)

Perhaps the most well-known Peruvian food in the US due to the many take-out Peruvian chicken rotisserie joints around (see our roundup of DC's best). A whole chicken is marinated in a powerful combination of garlic, herbs, and spices before roasting on a spit, giving the bronzed, crispy skin an addictively exotic and earthy taste. Perhaps even more beloved than the chicken itself is the green huacatay (Peruvian black mint) sauce served next to it: every chicken comes with it, though the recipe often varies and is a closely-guarded secret. For some it's a creamy melange of the mint with cilantro, garlic and chili in a mayo base that Peruvians (and everyone else) goes crazy for. If you can't make it to Peru, this is definitely a classic worth making on your own.


History of the Aji Chili Pepper

Aji Chili Peppers have an interesting history, represented in the way that the cuisine that has most taken to this particular pepper. It is most well loved in Peru, where the pepper shows up in a variety of dishes and is often served at the table as a condiment aside red onion and garlic.

The word &ldquoají&rdquo is actually a word used in the Caribbean to refer to this particular plant, but the name became so widespread that this is what it is known as in most of the world. &ldquoAjí amarillo&rdquo literally translates to &ldquoyellow chili&rdquo in Spanish, which is the color that this pepper turns while cooked.

The mature pods of an ají pepper are actually bright orange.


Pappa Rellena

Today, we are headed to Peru for the delicious recipe of papa rellena !

From the Andes to heavenly beaches, the cuisine of the country is considered one of the most varied and richest in the world and it’s why some people say that Peruvian cuisine is the El Dorado of Latin America. Peru was also named “best gastronomic destination by the The World Travel Awards in 2015 and for the fourth consecutive year! Lima, the capital, is considered the gastronomic capital of South America.

The richness and diversity of its traditional dishes that a few young creative chefs have been able to revisit have finally placed Peruvian cuisine on the map. We can’t talk about Peruvian cuisine without mentioning Gastón Acurio, the great chef whom Morena talked about. He is also an award winning author who helped make Peruvian cuisine known throughout South America initially and now all over the world thanks to his many restaurants.

The origins of Peruvian cuisine lie in the migrations that took place in the past 500 years: Spanish, Japanese, Chinese or African. With 491 traditional dishes, this cuisine is also #1 in the world when it comes to variety! Of those 491, more than a hundred are traditional soups.

Related Posts:

Did you know that Peru is considered “granary of the world” due to its great biodiversity? Indeed, the country which is divided into three distinct climatic zones, is very rich thanks to 3 cooking styles with different influences:

The cuisine of the Andes, where potatoes, cereals and meat are the main ingredients.

The cuisine of the coast, which is rich in fish and seafood with a Chinese touch.

And finally, the lesser known but no less interesting cuisine of the jungle, which uses some of the most amazing and unique ingredients. Fried ants? Grilled alligator? A turtle or monkey stew? Uh … How can I say it? I will leave those recipes to Mike!

Today, I am taking you to the Andes with one of the greatest classic ingredients of this region: potato!

It is rather difficult to pick the best and most traditional Peruvian dishes. There is however one recipe that we couldn’t have skipped: papa rellena.

Papa rellena is a stuffed potato fritter. The potatoes are first mashed and then stuffed with deliciousness, like ground beef, onions, tomatoes, hard-boiled eggs, raisins and black olives, before being fried.

Potato or papa for our Peruvian friends, is a plant. Yes, a plant that is highly consumed in Peru.

It was born in the Andes at the border between Bolivia and Peru, where it grew wild. The first traces of potato culture date back 7000 years ago. At the time, there were already nearly 200 wild species of potatoes, but farmers have gradually improved those species.

Today, in the Andes, there are still 7 species and more than 5,000 varieties of all colors and shapes.

What is the origin of papa rellena?
The story goes that during the Pacific War, the armed conflict between Chile on one side, Peru and Bolivia on the other side, that lasted between 1879 and 1884, Peruvian soldiers were traveling for a long time on roads very far from cities, so Chilean soldiers would not know of their position and could not determine where the next attack would take place.

During these trips, the soldiers had to take their food in pouches because there were no bags and no way to refrigerate. Thus, with a lot of imagination, they had the idea to cook the meat (ground or chopped), then season it and make a kind of dough with blanched potatoes. They kept the meat inside and finally fried them immediately. They were then wrapped in a tissue as large as a handkerchief. When lunch time approached, they took them out of their little packages and ate them.

These stuffed potatoes are also famous in Chile, Cuba, Colombia, Puerto Rico and the Caribbean.

The preparation and presentation of papas rellenas vary from country to country. They are also consumed in US cities with a large population of Cubans such as Miami and Tampa. The Cuban version consists of potato balls seasoned and stuffed with picadillo, a minced meat preparation famous in Latin-America and Spain.

In Puerto Rico, where this dish is called relleno de papa, they are stuffed with cheese and ground beef. Papas are then covered with raw egg and rolled in corn flour before being fried.

I am a stickler when it comes to the right choice of potato. They are classified by family and not all potatoes are suitable for all recipes.

To make papas rellenas, the choice is crucial. You need to choose potatoes that are used for mashed potatoes, and preferably with a yellow flesh.

I prepared these papas for a dinner with Tunisian friends and we enjoyed them as an appetizer. You can also eat papas rellenas as a main course. They are most often served with salsa criolla on the side, as well as white rice. Salsa criolla consists of sliced red onion, sliced aji amarillo, and cilantro leaves with lime juice.

Of course, my friends compared my papas rellenas to the famous Tunisian banatages. Sorry, but I disagree ! No offense to the chauvinists or the lovers their Tunisian mom’s cooking, I found that papas rellenas were much tastier than their Tunisian cousins, which are prepared with very few ingredients. No hard feelings!

This recipe is validated by our Peruvian culinary expert Morena Cuadra, author of culinary blog Peru Delights.


Kyk die video: ЗАБЫТЫЙ ГОРОД в США. Как ЖИВУТ ИНДЕЙЦЫ до сих пор - коренное население Америки (Junie 2022).


Kommentaar:

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